July 16, 2020
Editorial responsibilities : Direction de la collection "Cours-Série Droit privé", Editions Dalloz (33)
Référence complète : Cabrillac, R., Droit des obligations, Coll. "Cours Dalloz-Série Droit privé", 14ième éd., 2020, Dalloz, 437 p.
Parfaitement à jour de l'Ordonnance de 2016 et de la Loi de ratification de 2018 qui réforma le droit des contrats dans le Code civil, le manuel de Rémy Cabrillac raconte en 437 pages le droit des obligations comme une matière vivante et quotidienne.
Pour le faire, cet ouvrage désormais classique s'appuie sur les textes, la jurisprudence mais aussi les exemples de la vie quotidienne.
Nov. 27, 2019
This Working Paper served as the basis for an intervention in the conference organized in the conference cycle organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) on the theme: Compliance Tools, in collaboration with many university partners: this first conference is organized in collaboration with the Sciences po Economics Department and is held on November 28, 2019 at Sciences po and deals with the more specific theme of Risk mapping.
Introduction and Summary.
Most often we only describe the risk mapping mechanism, without qualifying it legally. The legislator does not do more. Thus, in the French legal system, in the law adopted in 2016 for fighting againt corruption, the so-called "Sapin 2 law", the article 17 describes cartography as "la forme d'une documentation régulièrement actualisée et destinée à identifier, analyser et hiérarchiser les risques d'exposition de la société à des sollicitations externes aux fins de corruption, en fonction notamment des secteurs d'activité et des zones géographies dans lesquelles la société exerce son activité" " ("the form of documentation regularly updated and intended to identify, analyze and prioritize the risks of exposure of the company to external solicitations at the end of corruption, depending in particular on the sectors of activity and the geographic areas in which the company operates.").
In the law adopted in 2017 for obliging big companies to be "vigilant", the article 1 of this so-called "Vigilance law" of March 27, 2017 aims to do a "cartographie des risques destinée à leur identification, leur analyse et leur hiérarchisation ("map the risks intended for their identification, analysis and prioritization").
This is a description, not a definition, with the text only targeting the "form" that this piece of information takes, without saying more. The letter of the descriptive text inserted in the second part of article 17 referring to the first part thereof, which expressly covers it as a "modality" of "the obligation" to take "measures intended to prevent and prevent detect the commission, in France or abroad, of acts of corruption or trading in influence ". In the same way when consulting the documents by which the regulatory authorities, for example the Financial Market Authority, presents the way to properly identify the risks, including the risks of "non-compliance"!footnote-1734, there is a description of the ways of doing things, no definition, often no rights. We find this same tendency in Compliance itself, so often reduced in its presentation to a mechanical process, often not very legal, or only becoming so in its bad light: that of the sanction. This mechanical conception of Compliance as a process leads to proposing that machines and not human beings establish the tools, notably the risk mapping.
Because it is understood that cartography is only a "tool", the law designated it as a "modality". It is therefore a given that we must look for what the tool is made for. Either it is done so that the law is not ignored, mapping identifying for example the increased risk that it is not: it is usually referred to by the strange name of "risk of compliance". The mapping then allows the company to execute its "compliance obligation", that is to say to ensure in Ex Ante that the law is respected by eliminating in advance the risk that it will not be . Thus, in 2008, the OECD defined risk mapping by its objectives, namely to put in place efficient means to reduce the risk of fraud and corruption and to set up efficient investigations by focusing efforts on effective procedures "!footnote-1739.
Then there are the risks which do not concern the Law, and which the company manages as so many considerations for its action, such as economic, natural or political risks, as well as "market risks", about which the Authorities markets, as the Financial Market Authority regularly draws up a "risk map"!footnote-1740. But this mapping does not seem to concern Law, even though it is no longer the sole responsibility of the company's internal management. The more we read cards, the more we observe their diversity, without knowing whether they constitute a "modality" of an obligation, therefore constituting a legal object, or if it constitutes a good way of doing things, which is neutral. for the Law. But what does law today not mix with? Especially of a fact as important and significant and expensive as this one ...
However, we observe to what extent "risk mapping" has so far been little thought in law. Indeed, when it is exposed, and so often, that it includes both "economic risks", "political risks", and "compliance risks", when however as a whole it is not instrument of a Compliance Law, which organizes all of compliance, the lawyer who constantly orders no longer manages to follow: as "compliance" could be only part of a mechanism that itself is only part of "compliance"? There are very many writings which detail the cartography, which by a kind of mirror effect, draw up cartographies of the requirements country by country, texts by texts, sectors by sectors, law by law, cartography requirements. .. We are faced with a house of cards, always more meticulously described, without ever meeting any legal qualification. For example, does drawing up such a card constitute a legal fact or a legal act? I don't see the question even asked. Yet the consequences of diet are immense. Assuming that this is only a legal fact, can it be justified? The lawyers thought about it and instead found the door closed ... But why should it not be a legal act? The legal category of unilateral legal acts is there to welcome it. In this case, the risk mapping commits the company and we feel that regulators and judges are seeing it more and more. But if the company is engaged, with whom is it? More precisely still, if it becomes debtor of the obligation to map, even if no specific law prescribes it in a precise way, then there is necessarily a creditor beneficiary of this obligation. Who is he ? And why is it?
The essence of this contribution is to ask these questions. They are elementary. They open up avenues, those that the exercise of legal qualification, legal categorization and legal definition, opens up.
If for the moment it has been little practiced, risk mapping being strangely left to algorithms, capable of heaping up data and incapable of defining and qualifying legally, this may be due to the fact more general than Law and risk are rarely directly associated. The mechanism of good management that constitutes risk mapping, especially in organizations that are not companies but are in charge of administering and adopting this good method without constraint!footnote-1735, incites it even less that we can read that it would be for the meticulous entity to identify in advance in particular the "legal risk"!footnote-1731, that is to say the application that could be made of law, uncertain application, annoying application. How many successful seminars on "penal risk" ... As in defense, lawyers explain too generally that the Law is constituted to fight against the risk, which is a fact. In fact, we repeat over and over again that the legal system is there to "secure", sometimes reducing it to this technical performance due to its very nature, by the principle of "legal security", that the State by its permanence , its legitimate violence, its imperium, gives us in exchange the peace, that the contract by the "little law" which it constitutes offers to the parties which enact it a haven of security for this island of stability in a future that never quite knows; beware of us if we get out of the legal order because we fall back into risk ... Thus, either one is in the Law, subject to the Law, and one benefits from its specific security, which economists would readily refer to as "regulation", or one is in the freedom of action, and the 'then we are at risk .... It would be like for the markets, about which we must choose between liquidity and security: if we want freedom of action, then we need less regulation , and therefore less security, more risk .... This traditional opposition, so often relayed in economics, is called into question by the obligation of risk mapping because if these are established, it is not for know in itself but to combat them, beyond the traditional obligation of information on risks, of which there are many anchors in the branches of Law, in particular Company Law, in particular those exposed to the financial markets (I) .
Consequently, since there is under the classic information of the political pretension, of the will to "prevent" the evil, which is quickly transformed into the will to "promote" the good, the new appears. The novelty is first of all institutional (II). In this, the so-called "Sapin 2" law, through the establishment of the French Anticorruption Agency, institutionalized this mechanism by which companies "exposed" to financial markets and / and to international investors, and / and to international trade , present in a clear and orderly manner - that is to say by a map - the risks they have identified in their present and future actions, must more concretely account for their structural organization. Public authorities will supervise the companies exposed to these risks. Certainly banks are legally accustomed to it, but banks are in a sector which is regulated and supervised. What is remarkable is that the Compliance Law applies via the risk mapping requirement the legal technique of supervision to companies which operate in sectors which are not supervised, which are sometimes not even regulated. Thus, they become structurally transparent. The liberal principle according to which a company only reports on its behavior and not on its internal organization is undermined. Thus, by the only technique imposed by law, the transparency method, specific to supervised companies becomes general, as soon as a risk exists. This is a radical innovation, since the risk in question is not a sector risk and a general crisis is no longer to be feared. The rupture is thus effected with the Law of supervision which until now was unbreakable from the Law of Regulation, the obligation of risk mapping applying to any "crucial operator" exposed to the risk of corruption, in that this must be fought in a global manner.
Therefore, risk mapping is a tool which, beyond the simple description, takes its definition in a teleological way. Its aim is to prevent risks which compromise ambitions which are not always of an economic nature but which are of a political nature (III). The fight against corruption is only one example, the so-called "vigilance" law also requiring a "risk mapping" in the area of human rights, while this technique is taken up by more or less binding texts in environmental matter. Certainly companies in a position to carry such political ambitions, by force - because of their position - or willingly - by their reason for being or by their policy of social responsibility - must support it, transforming them into major political actors . They cannot, however, take the place of the Public Authorities, which on the one hand fix the "monumental goals" which it is a question of achieving on the one hand and which on the other hand supervise in Ex Ante and in Ex Post the implementation and operation of these tools within crucial companies.
Dec. 12, 2018
Thesaurus : Doctrine
Référence complète : Mélanges en l'honneur du Professeur Claude Witz, LexisNexis, novembre 2018, 920 p.
Consulter la présentation de l'article suivant :
June 6, 2018
Thesaurus : Doctrine
Référence complète : Fabre-Magnan, M., Le droit des contrats, coll. "Que sais-je ?", ed. PUF, 2018, 128 p.
« On lie les bœufs par les cornes, et les hommes par les paroles », disait le juriste Loysel en 1607. Toute l’ambivalence du contrat est là. En échangeant leurs paroles, les hommes s’engagent et se lient les uns aux autres. Par leur parole encore, ils peuvent se projeter dans l’avenir et tenter d’avoir prise sur lui. Enfin, en respectant la parole qu’ils ont donnée, ils lui confèrent sa valeur, déterminant la nature de la relation qu’ils ont nouée avec les autres.
Le « droit des contrats » désigne ainsi le « droit des obligations librement consenties », en d’autres termes le droit des engagements volontaires. Mais la liberté de se lier ne serait-elle pas un oxymore ?
Au droit revient la tâche de canaliser et de garantir la parole donnée, et ce faisant d’articuler tous les mots qui disent le contrat, à commencer par la liberté, la volonté, la force obligatoire, la loi et, bien sûr, la justice.
May 19, 2018
Il y a quelques jours, dans une réunion j'écoutais Alain Supiot.
Et cela m'a fait penser à un article sous presse que je viens de lire d'une ancienne élève à laquelle j'avais consacré des journées entières pour la guider dans son travail.
Puis ce matin, j'ai lu un extrait d'un livre de Bernard Maris.
Et cela m'a fait penser à des pages de Nietzsche.
Et je me suis dit : la question n'est-elle pas d'échapper non pas du tout à celle de la dette, qui est une question éthique et juridique fondamentale, une notion vaste et belle, mais à une sorte de piège, étroit et mortifère dans lequel il n'y aurait comme "place de référence" comme la place de "débiteur" ou bien la place de "créancier". A la fois en éthique, en économie et en droit.
Et si l'on a tant de mal à trouver notre place, n'est-ce pas parce qu'être "débiteur" peut renvoyer à deux positions qui n'ont rien à voir l'une avec l'autre ? L'une dans laquelle nous portons une dette qui suppose l'existence d'un créancier (ce qui suppose toujours une exécution à venir, une opposition, une violence), et l'autre dans laquelle nous portons une dette qui pourrait exister sans qu'existe un créancier ?
Feb. 22, 2018
Thesaurus : Doctrine
Complete reference : Aranda Vasquez, A., Affaire Generali : la Cour de cassation précise les caractéristiques de l'obligation, in Petites affiches, février 2018, n° 39, pp.12-15.
"The Generali case is experiencing a new episode. The Court of Cassation has clarified the essential characteristics of the obligation. It is reverting to the position of the judgment of the Paris Court of Appeal of June 21, 2016 (n ° 15 / 00317), by deciding that the reimbursement of the nominal amount is not an essential characteristic of the obligation. The highest court of the judiciary thus sheds light on the matter. "
Sciences-Po students can consult the article via the Drive, "MAFR- Regulation & Compliance" folder
Updated: July 31, 2013 (Initial publication: Dec. 6, 2011)
Teachings : Les Grandes Questions du Droit, semestre d'automne 2011
Jan. 2, 2008
Thesaurus : Doctrine
Référence complète : Dumez, H., De l'obligation de rendre des comptes ou accountability, in Revue "Annales des Mines - Gérer et comprendre", n° 91, 2008, pp. 4-8.
Les étudiants de Sciences po peuvent lire l’article via le dossier « MAFR – Régulation & Compliance »
March 31, 2005
June 17, 1998
Thesaurus : Doctrine
Feb. 3, 1994
Référence complète : FRISON-ROCHE, Marie-Anne, T.D. Dalloz, Droit des contrats, Collection "T.D. Dalloz", 1994.
Le droit s’apprend non seulement par le savoir des règles, mais encore par leur apprentissage et leur maniement à travers des exercices, qui conduit le lecteur à la résolution de difficultés juridiques pratiques. La dissertation juridique, la fiche d’analyse de décision juridictionnelle, le commentaire d’arrêt ou de texte, le cas pratique, sont autant de modes d’apprentissage auxquels l’étudiant doit, année après année, apprendre à maitriser les règles. En outre, parce que ces exercices sont imprégnés de la matière sur laquelle ils portent, l’exercice ne prend véritablement vie qu’au contact de celle-ci. Ainsi, les thèmes majeurs du droit des contrats sont dans cet ouvrage systématiquement pris avec un exposé préalable de la méthodologie des exercices, une présentation pour chaque thème de l’idée générale et des thèmes spéciaux d’illustration avec associés à chacun des exercices entièrement explicités et rédigés. Sont ainsi successivement analysés la formation du rapport contractuelle, les vices du consentement, la lésion, l’objet, la cause, la protection du consommateur, les groupes de contrats, le juge et le contrat, la responsabilité contractuelle.