Thesaurus : Soft Law

Référence complète : Gauvain, R. et Marleix, O., Rapport d'information sur l'évaluation de l'impact de la loi n° 2016-1691 du 9 décembre 2016 relative à la transparence, à la lutte contre la corruption et à la modernisation de la vie économique, 2021.

____

 

Lire le rapport. 

________

Aug. 31, 2022

Publications

 Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A.., Le principe de proximité systémique active, corolaire du renouvellement du Principe de Souveraineté par le Droit de la Compliance, in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (dir.), Les buts monumentaux de la Compliance, série "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC), 2022, p.501-520.

,___

🚧 read the Bilingual Working Paper, with technical developments, references and links, basis of this article.

____

► English Summary of this Article:  Surprisingly, it is often in a quarrelsome, angry, dissatisfied tone that we first speak of Compliance, especially when Compliance takes a legal form, because it is then we talk about sanctions coming from afar. These sanctions would strike both extremely hard and in an illegitimate way, Law only therefore takes its part in Compliance to increase its brutality: the Law is what would prolong the war between States to better hit this kind of civilian population that would be the companies..., in a new kind of "planetary total war"...

Why so much detestation, which can only be generated by such a presentation?

Because, thanks to the power of Law, Compliance would therefore be the means for a State, finally found, to meddle in the affairs of others to serve its own interests, including those of its companies, to go to war against other States and to the companies they care about without even having to formally declare the war to them. Compliance Law would finally allow a State that is not even a strategist, just smarter, to leave its territory to regulate others. It is true that it seems even more exasperating that it would also be under the guise of virtue and good purposes. Thus, it is not possible to count the number of the writings that describe and comment on the occurrences of the expression "Trojan horse", "economic war", etc. There are thus more articles on this subject of Compliance Law as a means of going to dictate to subjects of law who are nevertheless subject to other legal systems their behavior and to sanction them for having failed to do so, than on all other technical Compliance matters.

As soon as the term "extraterritoriality" is dropped, the knives are drawn. The dejection of defeat... because who can fight against American power, American Law seducing everyone? The call for resistance, or at the very least for "reaction"... In any case, it would be necessary to put the analysis back on its true terrain: politics, conquest, war, so leaving the legal technique there, area which would be good for the naive and above all count the divisions amassed on each side of the borders, then note that only the United States would have had the ingenuity to count many of them, with their armada of judges, prosecutors and lawyers, with Compliance Law amassed like so many gold coins since the 1930s, American companies relaying the assault by internalizing Compliance Law through internal codes, law that is "soft" only in name, and community standards governing the planet according to American principles, the solution then consisting of line up as many of them as possible in reaction, then attempt to "block" the assault. Because if there is no Global Law, Compliance Law would have succeeded in globalizing American Law.

The technique of blocking laws would therefore be the happy outcome on which the forces should concentrate to restore "sovereignty", since Europe had been invaded, by surprise by some famous texts (FCPA) and some cases whose evocation (BNP case) to the French ear sounds like a Waterloo. Compliance Law would therefore only be a morne plaine...

But is this how we should understand the notion of Sovereignty? Has the so-called question of "the extraterritoriality of Compliance Law" not been totally biased by the question, certainly important but with both very precise and extremely specific outlines, of embargoes which have almost not related to Compliance Law?

The first thing to do is therefore to see more clearly in this kind of fight of extraterritoriality, by isolating the question of embargoes from other objects which should not be assessed in the same way (I).

This done, it appears that where Compliance Law is required, it must be effectively indifferent to the territory: because Compliance Law intervenes where the territory, in the very concrete sense of the land in which we are anchor is not present in the situation to be governed, situation to which our minds have so much difficulty adapting and which, however, is now the most common situation: finance, space, digital. If we want the idea of ​​civilization to remain there, that the notion of "limit" be central there. However, Sovereignty is not linked to omnipotence, it is the grandchildren who believe that, it is on the contrary linked to the notion of limits (II).

But if the limit had been naturally given to human beings by the territory, the ground on which we walk and the border on which we stumble and which protects us from aggression, if the limit had been naturally given to human beings by death and the oblivion into which our body and our imagination eventually fall. Indeed, technology erases both natural limits. The Law was the very reflection of these limits, since it was built on the idea of ​​life and death, with this idea that, for example, we could no longer continue to live after our death. Digital technology could challenge this. In the same way, Law had in the same "natural" way reflected the terrestrial borders, since Public International Law being internal Public Law, took care that each sovereign subject remained in its terrestrial borders and did not go beyond, without the agreement of others, Public International Law organizing both the friendly reception of the other, by treaties and diplomacy, as well as unfriendly entry, by the Law of War, while  Private International Law welcomes foreign legal systems if a extraterritorial element is already present in the situation.

The complexity of the rules and the subtlety of the solutions do not modify the solidity of this base, always linking the Law to the material reality of this world which are our bodies, which appear and disappear and our "being" with them, and the earth squared by borders. Borders have always been crossed, International Commercial Law being only an economic and financial translation of this natural taste for travel which does not question the territory, human beings passing from one to another.

But the Global has arrived, not only in its opportunities, being not an issue because one can always give up the best, but also in global risks whose birth, development and result are not mastered and of which it is not relevant to thinking only of repairing the damage, because preventing risks from degenerating into a systemic catastrophe is what is at stake today. What if territory slips away and hubris seizes human beings who claim that technology could be the new wings leading a fortunate few to the sun of immortality? We could go towards a world that is both catastrophic and limitless, two qualifiers that classical philosophers considered identical.

Law being what brings measure, therefore limits in a world which, through technology, promises to some the deliverance of all these "natural" limits, could, by the new branch of Compliance Law, again inserting limits to a world which, without this contribution, would become disproportionate, some being able to dispose of others without any limit: in doing so, Compliance Law would then become an instrument of Sovereignty, in that it could impose limits, not by powerlessness but on the contrary by the force of Law. This explains why Compliance is so expressly linked to the political project of "Digital Sovereignty".

To renew this relationship between Law and Sovereignty, where the State takes a new place, we must think of new principles. A new principle is proposed here: the Principle of "Proximity", which must be inserted into the Ex-Ante and systemic Law that is Compliance Law. Thus inserted, the Principle of Proximity can be defined in a negative way, without resorting to the notion of territory, and in a positive way, to posit as being "close" what is close systemically, in the present and in the future, Compliance Law being a branch of Systemic Law having as its object the Future.

Thus, thinking in terms of Proximity consists of conceiving this notion as a Systemic Principle, which then renews the notion of Sovereignty and founds the action of entities in a position to act: Companies (III).

If we think of proximity not in a territorial way, the territory having a strong political dimension but not a systemic dimension, but if we think of systemic proximity in a concrete way through the direct effects of an object whose situation immediately impacts ours (as in the climatic space, or in the digital space), then the notion of territory is no longer primary, and we can do without it.

If the idea of ​​Humanism should finally have some reality, in the same way that a company donneuse d'ordre ("order giver") has a duty of Compliance regarding who works for it, this again meets the definition of Compliance Law as the protector of human beings who are close because they are internalized in the object consumers take. It is this legal technique that allows the transmission, with the thing sold, of the procedural right of action for contractual liability.

Therefore, a Principle of Active Systemic Proximity justifies the action of companies to intervene, in the same way that public authorities are then legitimate to supervise them in the indifference of the formal legal connection, principe of indifference already functioning in the digital space and in environmental and humanist vigilance.

It is therefore appropriate to no longer be hampered by what is a bad quarrel of the extraterritoriality of Compliance Law (I), to show the consubstantial Indifference to the territory of this new branch of Law (II) and to propose the formulation of a new Principle: the "Principle of Active Systemic Proximity (III).

____ 

📕go to the general presentation of the book, Les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance, in which this article is published.

___

 read the presentations of the other Marie-Anne Frison-Roche's contributions in this book:

📝 Les Buts Monumentaux, cœur battant du Droit de la Compliance

📝 Définition du Principe de Proportionnalité et Définition du Droit de la Compliance 

📝 Rôle et place des entreprises dans la création et l'effectivité du Droit de la Compliance en cas de crise 

📝 Appréciation du lancement d'alerte et de l'obligation de vigilance au regard de la compétitivité internationale

📝Le principe de proximité systémique active, corolaire du renouvellement du Principe de Souveraineté par le Droit de la Compliance

📝 La dynamique des Buts Monumentaux du Droit de la Compliance

________

 

 

________

June 9, 2022

Conferences

► Référence générale : Frison-Roche, M.-A., Droit de la Compliance et Cloud souverain, in Souveraineté numérique : quelles solutions pour quels problèmes ?  Association Master 2 Droit du Commerce Électronique et de l’Économie Numérique (M2 DCEEN), Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris I), 9 juin 2022, 18h-20h.

____

Voir le programme

____

Cette intervention s'insère dans un débat coordonné par la professeure Judith Rochfeld, auquel participent également Monsieur le Député Philippe Latombe et Céline Heller (société Google).

Pour ma part, interrogée en premier pendant un 1/4 d'heure, il s'agissait en premier lieu, avant de participer à la discussion générale, de répondre aux trois questions suivantes :

  •  Quelles définitions doivent être retenues pour la souveraineté numérique ?
  • Quel est le rapport entre souveraineté numérique et droit de la compliance ?
  • Plus largement, quelle place le Droit doit-il occuper dans la souveraineté numérique selon vous ?
  • En quoi la souveraineté numérique est-elle un but monumental ? 

____





 

Updated: Jan. 24, 2022 (Initial publication: )

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Référence complète : Dupré, B., Souveraineté européenne, autonomie stratégique, Europe puissance : quelle réalité pour l’Union européenne et pour quel avenir ?, Fondation Robert Schuman, Question d'Europe, n°620, janv. 2022. 

____

 

Lire l'article. 

Oct. 22, 2021

Publications

 

► Référence complète : Frison-Roche, M.-A.Le principe de proximité systémique active, corolaire du renouvellement du Principe de Souveraineté par le Droit de la Compliance, document de travail, octobre 2021

____

🎤 Ce document de travail avait été élaboré pour servi de base à l'intervention de clôture du colloque Effectivité de la Compliance et Compétitivité internationale, coorganisé par le Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et le Centre de recherche en Droit et en Économie de l'Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II), se tenant le 4 novembre 2021, Salle des Conseils, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II). 

🚧Il était corrélé à un premier document de travail ayant pour thème l'Appréciation du lancement d'alerte et de l'obligation de vigilance au regard de la compétitivité internationale, élaboré également pour ce colloque. 

La gestion du temps n'a permis que la prise de parole sur ce thème-ci relatif aux techniques juridiques du lancement d'alerte et de l'obligation et devoir de vigilance.

____

📝Ce présent document de travail a donc été ultérieurement utilisé pour constituer la base d'un article, Le principe de proximité systémique active, corolaire du renouvellement du Principe de Souveraineté par le Droit de la Compliance, lequel est publié

📕dans sa version française dans l'ouvrage Les buts monumentaux de la Compliancedans la collection 📚 Régulations & Compliance

 📘dans sa version anglaise dans l'ouvrage Compliance Monumental Goalsdans  la collection 📚 Compliance & Regulation

____

► Résumé du document de travail : Les rapports entre le Droit de la Compliance et la notion de Souveraineté sont abîmés par une mauvaise querelle de départ, souvent appelée celle de "l'extraterritorialité du Droit de la Compliance", elle-même qualifiée en tant que telle comme une attaque à la Souveraineté des Etats, une sorte de guerre contre cette sorte de population civile que sont "ses" entreprises, frappées par des sanctions économiques. Dans une confusion juridique générale, oscillant entre panique et rage, entre le cas pourtant si particulier des embargos décrétés par un Etat contre un autre, une contamination s'est faite avec la question plus vaste des sanctions économiques internationales, puis avec le Droit de la Compliance, lui-même réduit ainsi à n'être qu'une petite partie du Droit pénal international.

Le Droit de la Compliance, présenté comme outil masqué de guerre entre Etats, en a été d'une part profondément dénaturé. D'autre part, toutes les forces ont été mobilisées pour "réagir" et frapper en retour ou à tout le moins "bloquer", ou, si l'on ne pouvait rien faire d'autre, recopier l'arsenal, limitant la Compliance à la question de la corruption.

C'était réduire le Droit de la Compliance à peu, alors que nous avons tant besoin de sa force et qu'il exprime au contraire la puissance du Juridique lui-même dans un espace supra-national où les Etats sont peu présents. Ils sont peu présents parce que le territoire lui-même s'y dérobe et que les Etats demeurent liés au territoire. Or, la finance, le numérique et le spatial, ces grands enjeux de Régulation ont besoin de limites, parce que les êtres humains, même faibles, ne doivent pas être broyés par plus forts qu'eux. Non, la civilisation, essentiellement liée à la limite, ne doit pas se perdre dans ces nouveaux espaces. 

Or, la Souveraineté ne s'exprime pas dans la toute-puissance, ce sont les petits-enfants et les tyrans qui pensent cela. Elle s'exprime dans la limite, que le sujet se donne et qu'il donne. Le Droit de la Compliance, prolongeant en cela le Droit de la Régulation, est ce qui est en train de donner des limites à ces trois espaces sans territoire que sont la finance, le numérique et le spatial. En ce qu'il appréhende directement les risques globaux qui se jouent des territoires, par exemple le risque climatique. En ce qu'il limite les discours de haine qui nie l'idée de civilisation dans l'espace numérique. En ce qu'il se saisit directement de l'avenir. En ce qu'il noue directement une alliance entre les Autorités politiques et les Opérateurs cruciaux en Ex Ante 

C'est pourquoi sur la base du Droit de la Compliance l'Europe numérique souveraine s'élabore, l'industrie d'un cloud souverain se construit. Ainsi le Droit de la Compliance n'est pas l'ennemi de la Souveraineté, c'est le contraire : il est ce par quoi la Souveraineté va se déployer dans un monde qui doit se penser sans territoire en mettant pourtant le projet politique en son cœur. 

Pour cela il faut construire un nouveau principe, qui est l'inverse de la fermeture et de l'exclusion, correspondant au projet de l'Europe souveraine : celui de la "proximité systémique active. 

____

Lire ci-dessous les développements⤵️

Updated: Sept. 17, 2021 (Initial publication: Sept. 3, 2021)

MAFR TV

 Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., Le droit de la Compliance : un outil stratégique pour une Europe souveraine (Compliance law: a strategic tool for a sovereign Europe), interview with Jean-Philippe Denis, recorded on July 3, 2021 and broadcast on September 17, 2021

_____

 

🎥 Watch the interview, as broadcast on Xerfi Canal channels. 

 

🎥Watch the interview enhanced with French subtitles

____

►Summary: Compliance Law powerfully and clearly helps to build a sovereign Europe. 
Compliance Law is not the annex of Competition Law; it is another branch of Law, which aims instead to rely on the de facto power of companies, when they are in a position to achieve the "Monumental Goals" that the Political Authorities have decided to achieve, which requires an alliance between them and those companies in a position to achieve these "Monumental Goals".

Companies can do this because they are in a position to do so, in that they are well located to act, have the information, the technology and the adequate financial means.)

Compliance is a construction tool, and not, as it is still sometimes presented, a means to limit the ability of those who are concretely able to build, i.e. the companies. The architect remains and must remain the Politics. But the company remains the master of the means to achieve these goals, and free to duplicate them in its own care, via CSR, "raison d'être" and ethics.

 

Sept. 16, 2021

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full reference: Bismuth, R., Compliance et Souveraineté : Compliance and Sovereignty: ambiguous relationships,in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Compliance Monumental Goals, series "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, to be published.

___

► Article Summary (done by the author): :  At first glance, the notion of Sovereignty is difficult to combine with Compliance. Indeed, Sovereignty is part of Public International Law in a logic of essentially territorial distribution of competences, while Compliance has developed and disseminated in companies with tools and methods which largely ignore borders.

A closer look reveals more fundamentally three types of ambiguous interactions between the two. Compliance can first of all be understood as a tool allowing States, by relying on companies, to circumvent the obstacles and limits posed by a Sovereignty conceived in territorial terms and therefore to extend it. Such an approach can nevertheless lead to friction or even conflicts between Compliance and Sovereignty, the norms conveyed by the first not necessarily being in line with those imposed by the second.

This is particularly true when the Compliance "Monumental Goals" are not unilaterally defined or are not intended to be. Finally, by infusing companies with instruments and methods that are reminiscent of sovereign functions, compliance can also allow us to imagine an emerging movement tending to gradually establish Corporate Sovereignty beyond that of States.

___

📘  read the general presentation of the book in which this article is published

Sept. 16, 2021

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full reference: André, Ch., Souveraineté étatique, souveraineté populaire : quel contrat social pour la compliance ? (" State sovereignty, popular sovereignty: what social contract for compliance? "), in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Les buts monumentaux de la Compliance, series "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, to be published.

___

 

► Article Summary (done by the author): The “Compliance Monumental Goals” serve as vectors for “common” social values: the proposal is simple, but it seems both familiar and strange to a criminal lawyer.

Familiar, because even if compliance transcends the borders of academic disciplines, it shares with criminal law a logic sanctioning attacks on social interests. Strange, because Monumental Goals convey social values by sweeping away all the learned discussions that have been going on since Beccaria about the foundations and axiological functions of punishment. Indeed, the social values promoted by Monumental Goals are “common” in every sense of the word.

First, they are shared and internalized by the largest enterprises in the Western world, without the need for an international treaty on protected values. The question of sovereignty is overshadowed.

Second, they are common in that they are commonplace, ordinary, approved of by most Western consumer-citizens: probity, equality, respect for the environment, who would not be in favour of respecting them? Hence it is in companies’ interest to communicate and diffuse, urbi and orbi, how they respect these Monumental Goals. The question of citizens’ consensus on values is sidestepped, as they are supposed to be derived from the obvious (even if the goals could be achieved by different means, or even contradict each other).

Third, these values are common because they now enlist a multitude of communicants (the “compliance officer”, among others) who, more or less gracefully - the meticulous liturgy of compliance can put off some officiants and incite buffoonery - seek to spread the cult of these values at all levels of business. Since these values are respected, they are necessarily respectable: businesses become moralized by the multitude who respect them. Existence precedes essence, and the values conveyed contribute to the businesses’ raison d’être, beyond the pursuit of profit. The question of effectiveness vanishes, since these values are already there, regularly monitored, both internally and by public authorities. Sovereignty, citizenship, effectiveness: the logic of Compliance supplants the academic debates of criminal lawyers with practical solutions. Perhaps this is how the goals are “monumental”: vast, global, overwhelming. Compliance may not be the best of all worlds, but it is most certainly another world.

____

 

📝 Go to the general presentation of the book, Les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance, in which this article is published.

 

____

 

Sept. 16, 2021

Thesaurus : Doctrine

► Full Reference:  André, Ch., State sovereignty, popular sovereignty: what social contract for compliance?, in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Compliance Monumental Goals, series "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, to be published.

____

 

► Article Summary (done par the Author): 

The “Compliance Monumental Goals” serve as vectors for “common” social values: the proposal is simple, but it seems both familiar and strange to a criminal lawyer.

Familiar, because even if compliance transcends the borders of academic disciplines, it shares with criminal law a logic sanctioning attacks on social interests. Strange, because Monumental Goals convey social values by sweeping away all the learned discussions that have been going on since Beccaria about the foundations and axiological functions of punishment. Indeed, the social values promoted by Monumental Goals are “common” in every sense of the word.

First, they are shared and internalized by the largest enterprises in the Western world, without the need for an international treaty on protected values. The question of sovereignty is overshadowed.

Second, they are common in that they are commonplace, ordinary, approved of by most Western consumer-citizens: probity, equality, respect for the environment, who would not be in favour of respecting them? Hence it is in companies’ interest to communicate and diffuse, urbi and orbi, how they respect these Monumental Goals. The question of citizens’ consensus on values is sidestepped, as they are supposed to be derived from the obvious (even if the goals could be achieved by different means, or even contradict each other).

Third, these values are common because they now enlist a multitude of communicants (the “compliance officer”, among others) who, more or less gracefully - the meticulous liturgy of compliance can put off some officiants and incite buffoonery - seek to spread the cult of these values at all levels of business. Since these values are respected, they are necessarily respectable: businesses become moralized by the multitude who respect them. Existence precedes essence, and the values conveyed contribute to the businesses’ raison d’être, beyond the pursuit of profit. The question of effectiveness vanishes, since these values are already there, regularly monitored, both internally and by public authorities. Sovereignty, citizenship, effectiveness: the logic of Compliance supplants the academic debates of criminal lawyers with practical solutions. Perhaps this is how the goals are “monumental”: vast, global, overwhelming. Compliance may not be the best of all worlds, but it is most certainly another world.

___

 

📘  read the general presentation of the book in which this article is published

________

 

 

June 23, 2021

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Coulon, J.-M.,  La façon dont une entreprise fonctionne pour concrétiser le Droit de la Compliance : l'exemple du secteur de la construction ("How a company works to make Compliance Law a reality: the statutes of processes"), in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), La juridictionnalisation de la Complianceseries "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, to be published. 

____

 The summary below describes an article following the colloquium L'entreprise instituée Juge et Procureur d'elle-même par le Droit de la Compliance (The Entreprise instituted Judge and Prosecutor of itself by Compliance Law) , co-organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and the Faculté de Droit Lyon 3. This manifestation was designed under the scientific direction of Marie-Anne Frison-Roche and Jean-Christophe Roda and took place in Lyon on June 23, 2021. During this colloquium, the intervention was shared with Christophe Lapp, who is also a contributor in the book (see the summary of the Jean-Marc Coulon's Article).

In the book, the article will be published in Title I, devoted to:  L'entreprise instituée Juge et Procureur d'elle-même par le Droit de la Compliance (The Entreprise instituted Judge and Prosecutor of itself by Compliance Law ).

___

 Article Summary (done by the author) : The construction industry is not a regulated sector. Its market is made up of a superposition of territorial strata which are all relevant markets, to which corresponds a specific microcosm of companies. Finally, the temporary association between companies for the purposes of carrying out a project or a work is consubstantial with this sector.

The penetration of Compliance in this sector is inevitably very heterogeneous and results from both exogenous factors (other partners within temporary associations, influence of economic operators from other sectors of activity, capital providers and lenders, incitations from professional organizations ) the endogenous (submission to a Financial Regulatory Authority because the company is listed ; application of the laws on duty of vigilance, and French Law called "Sapin 2"). For example, subject to all these factors combined, the Bouygues group is particularly sensitive to compliance.

Not only internal "legislator", the Bouygues group finds itself in turn "prosecutor and judge" both of itself and of others. Indeed, leading an investigation, filing a complaint, triggering an ethics alert, making use of the leniency program, this group is, however, no other than a sort of assistant for the Prosecutor. In addition, scrutinizing its stakeholders, sanctioning its employees, resorting to a Convention Judiciaire d'intérêt public (judicial agreement in the public interest) or negotiating its sanction within the framework of a procedure instituted by a multilateral bank, it fulfills the function of a judge. Legislator, prosecutor, judge, the Bouygues group is faced with a paradox, in a way encouraged to exercise “sovereignty”, yet it does not benefit from the attributes attached to it or from the unwavering support of the competent Public Authorities.

____

 

📝 go to the general presentation to the book in which this article is published.

 

 

 

Nov. 18, 2020

Conferences

Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., Compliance Law, an adequate legal framework for GAIA-X, in "The World with GAIA-X", Pan-European GAIA - X Summit November 2020, 18 November 2020.

 

See the general presentation of the Summit.

 

Summary  of the intervention  in the Round-Table with professors Jacques Crémer and Achim Wambach:

Europe may offer an adequate legal framework for the GAIA-X project through Compliance Law. Compliance Law is a new forme a Regulatory Law, driven by "Monumental Goals", negative Monumental Goals, for instance prevention of systemic failures, and positive Monumental Goals, for instance innovation or stability. This very new branch of Law works on these Monumental Goals, which must be explicit and internalized in Crucial Enterprises. These Crucial Enterprises concretize these Goals, supervised by public Authorities. 

European Compliance Law already works, for instance about Personal Data protection (case law and GDPR) or prevention banking systemic failures (Banking Union), Compliance Tools being in balance with Competition principle. European Union Law is moving from the Ex Post Competition Law to the Ex Ante Compliance Law, internalizing Monumental Goals in Crucial Enterprises. 

There is a perfect adequacy between European Compliance Law and GAIA-X. This project built by Crucial Enterprises must be supervised by public authority, maybe a specific or the European Commission. The governance of GAIA-X must be transparent and accountable. This private organization must use it powers in respect of the proportionality principle, controlled by the public supervisory body. The legal framework is required but it is sufficient. 

___

See the slides, basis of this intervention.

 

See the video of this intervention. 

Oct. 5, 2020

Thesaurus

 

Référence complète : Bèvière-Boyer, B., L'identité civile numérique nationale, une priorité en matière de souveraineté et de protection des citoyens, Actu-Juridique, 5 octobre 2020. 
 
 

June 26, 2019

Thesaurus : Soft Law

Référence complète : Gauvain, R., Rétablir la souveraineté de la France et de l'Europe et protéger nos entreprises des lois et mesures à portée extraterritoriale, Rapport à la demande du Premier Ministre Monsieur Edouard Philippe, Assemblée nationale, juin 2019, 102 p.

 

Lire le Rapport.

Feb. 13, 2019

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Référence complète : Jensen, S., Norvège : exemple d'un fonds souverain éthique, in Politique internationale, dossier spécial, Investissement responsable : l'essor, n°162, hiver 2018-2019, pp. 105-112.

Updated: Oct. 25, 2017 (Initial publication: May 27, 2016)

Publications

► Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., Globalization from the point of view of Law, working paper, May 2017.

____

🎤 This working paper initially served as a basis for a synthesis report made in French in the colloquium organized by the Association Henri Capitant in the International German Days on the subject of "Le Droit et la Mondialisation" (Law and Globalization).

📝 Il sert dans un second temps de base à l'article paru dans l'ouvrage La Mondialisation.

📝 it serves as a second basis for the article (written in English, with a Spanish Summary) to be published in the Brezilian journal Rarb - Revista de Arbitragem e Mediação  (Revue d`Arbitrage et Médiation).


It uses the Bilingual Dictionary of the Law of Regulation and Compliance.

____

► Summary of the WorkingGlobalization is a confusing phenomenon for the jurist. The first thing to do is to take its measure. Once it has been taken, it is essential that we allow ourselves to think of something about it, even if we have to think about it. For example, on whether the phenomenon is new or not, which allows a second assessment of what is taking place. If, in so far as the law can and must "pretend" to defend every being, a universal claim destined to face the global field of forces, the following question - but secondary - is formulated: quid facere? Nothing ? Next to nothing ? Or regulate? Or can we still claim that the Law fulfills its primary duty, which is to protect the weak, including the forces of globalization?

____

read the Working Paper below⤵️

Oct. 20, 2016

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Référence complète : Gamet, L., Droits de l'homme, urbi et orbi, Droit social, 2016, p. 1046 et s.

 

Résumé de l'article (par l'auteur) : Une fois affirmée l'universalité des droits de l'homme au travail, se pose la question de leur effectivité. Aucun tribunal international n'ayant été institué pour condamner un État défaillant, comment faire pour que les droits de l'homme au travail soient respectés de par le monde, sans consacrer un droit d'ingérence dans les affaires nationales des États souverains ? L'initiative publique trouve aujourd'hui, de façon subtile, un puissant relais dans l'initiative privée.
 

Jan. 15, 2015

Conferences

Le droit prétend être un système autonome, produisant sa propre réalité, incontestable. Acte de langage, il est performatif, en cela souverain. La mondialisation le permet-elle encore ? Pourtant, le droit étant aussi une pratique sociale, soit il prend son objet comme limite (il ne peut dire qu’il fait jour la nuit), soit il prend son objet comme maître : le droit nazi établit la « loi du sang ». Aujourd’hui, l’économie est-elle la loi du droit ?

En outre, le droit n’est-il pas positif qu’une fois appliqué ? Dès lors, le droit recherche l’adhésion, par un discours qui séduit et balance les intérêts. Mais dans le même temps, le droit veut de plus en plus refléter la réalité. Sa première évolution l’éloigne de la vérité pour aller vers le consensus, la seconde prétend la rapprocher. Par exemple, qui décide de la filiation ? On en vient à douter que le Politique ou la morale aient encore une place dans le système juridique.

Avoir une première vue du programme.

Lire le programme général du colloque, Sous-détermination, incomplétude, incommensurabilité : la pensée des limites

Lire le Working Paper établissant les grandes lignes servant de base à la discussion

Dec. 11, 2014

Conferences

Prendre le thème de "l'effectivité de la régulation bancaire" est presque un pléonasme, dans la mesure où la régulation se définit comme un corps de principes, de règles et de décision formant un appareillage prenant son sens dans le but qu'il a pour fonction de concrétiser. Ainsi la régulation est entièrement dans son "effectivité".

Cela déplace d'autant la question, qui devient non pas en premier lieu la mesure de l'effectivité mais la détermination du but au regard duquel cette effectivité se mesure. Or, la régulation bancaire peut avoir plusieurs buts, la multiplicité des buts diminuant son effectivité, tandis que la contradiction entre les buts l'anéantit. Dans la nouvelle architecture européenne, le but a le mérite d'être clair, qualité majeure du système par rapport au modèle nord-américain : il s'agit d'assurer la solidité du système bancaire.

L'unicité et la clarté du but est déjà un gage d'effectivité. Mais c'est la prochaine crise qui montrera donc l'effectivité de la régulation, la prochaine crise évitée (mais alors comment la connaître ?) ou la prochaine crise qui se déroulera, puis sera maîtrisée, c'est-à-dire le bon déclenchement du mécanisme de résolution bancaire, là où réside la véritable innovation.

S'il y a "nouvelle donne", c'est dans le fait même que la régulation bancaire est désormais "européenne". Cela est tout autant étonnant que la matière touche aux souverainetés. C'est en cela que paradoxalement le "citoyen européen" qui continue de ne pas exister, faute d'Europe politique, pourrait exister à travers une régulation bancaire européenne, puisque celle-ci manie la "monnaie souveraine".

Updated: July 31, 2013 (Initial publication: Dec. 6, 2011)

Teachings : Les Grandes Questions du Droit, semestre d'automne 2011

La personnalité est certes abstraitement l’aptitude à être titulaire de droits et d’obligations, mais elle est aussi intime de l’être humain. Un système juridique de plus en plus soucieux de la vie, des corps et des être humains, concrétise la notion juridique de personne. Entre en balance la naturalité et l’artificialité de cette notion complexe de personne, à travers notamment le droit du corps humain, par exemple par la question de la maternité de substitution ou celle de l’identité sexuelle. Les personnes concrètes, analysées juridiquement en situation se voient reconnaitre des droits fondamentaux qui s’étendent et se multiplient et dont le cœur du système est « le droit au droit ». Mais les droits fondamentaux changent aussi de nature, en ce qu’ils se reconceptualisent à travers la catégorie des droits de l’homme altruistes.

Updated: July 31, 2013 (Initial publication: Oct. 4, 2011)

Teachings : Les Grandes Questions du Droit, semestre d'automne 2011

La première partie de la question des "espaces du droit" sera consacrée à leur perception à travers la géographie. Au-delà de l’espace français, sont examinés l’espace européen et l’espace mondial. L’espace virtuel semble une aporie en ce qu’il est un espace sans géographie pour le droit.