Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Deffains, B., L’enjeu économique de compétitivité internationale de la compliance (The economic challenge of international competitiveness of Compliance"), in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (dir.), Les buts monumentaux de la Compliance, série "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, to be published.

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► Article English Summary  (done by the Author, translated by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance) :  "Compliance", which can be define as obedience to the regulations is a stake for the company in that it can choose as a strategy to do it or not to do it, according to what costs it and brings it such a choice. This same choice of understanding is offered to the author of the norm, the Legislator or the Judge, even the entire legal system making regulation more or less expensive, and compliance with it for businesses. So when the French law known as “Vigilance law” was adopted in 2017, the French Parliament was criticized for dealing a blow to the “international competitiveness” of French companies. ”Today, it is on its model that the  European Directive is conceived. The extraterritoriality attached to Compliance Law, often presented as an economic aggression, is nevertheless a consubstantial effect, with its desire to claim to protect beyond borders. , coming us back to a classic question in Economics: what is the price of virtue?

To fuel a debate that began a few centuries ago, it is on the side of the issues that the analysis must be made economically. Indeed, Compliance Law is not only located in Ex Ante, to prevent, detect, remedy, reorganize the future, but also claims to face more "monumental" difficulties than traditional branches of Law. And it is concretely by examining the new instruments that Compliance Law has put in place and offered or imposed on companies that the question of international competitiveness must be examined. The mechanisms of information, secrecy, accountability or responsibility, which have a great effect on the international competitiveness of companies and systems, have changed and their measure has not yet been taken.

____

📝 read the présentation générale du livre, 📕Les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance, in which this article is published.

________

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Référence complète : Manacorda, Stefano, La dynamique des programmes de conformité des entreprises : déclin ou transfiguration du droit pénal des affaires ?, in Supiot, Alain (dir.), L'entreprise dans un monde sans frontières. Perspectives économiques et juridiques, coll. "Les sens du droit", Dalloz, 2015, 320 p.

 

Les étudiants de Sciences po peuvent via le Drive lire l'article dans le dossier "MAFR - Régulation".

 

 

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Deffains, B., Compliance and International Competitiveness, in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Compliance Monumental Goals, series "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, to be published.

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► Article Summary: Compliance, which can be defined first and foremost as obedience to the law, is an issue for the company in that it can choose as a strategy to do or not to do it, depending on what such a choice costs or brings in. This same choice of understanding is offered to the author of the norm, the legislator or the judge, or even the entire legal system, in that it makes regulation more or less costly, and compliance with it, for companies. Thus, when the so-called “Vigilance” law was adopted in 2017, the French Parliament was criticized for dealing a blow to the “international competitiveness” of French companies. Today, it is on its model that the European Parliament is asking the European Commission to design what could be a European Directive. The extraterritoriality attached to the Compliance Law, often presented as an economic aggression, is however a consubstantial effect, to its will to claim to protect beyond the borders. This brings us back to a classic question in Economics: what is the price of virtue?

In order to fuel a debate that began several centuries ago, it is first of all on the side of the stakes that the analysis must be carried out. Indeed, the Law of Compliance, which is not only situated in Ex Ante, to prevent, detect, remedy, reorganize the future, but also claims to face more “monumental” difficulties than the classical Law. And it is specifically by examining the new instruments that the Law has put in place and offered or imposed on companies that the question of international competitiveness must be examined. The mechanisms of information, secrecy, accountability or responsibility, which have a great effect on the international competitiveness of companies and systems, are being changed and the measure of this is not yet taken.

____

📘  lire la présentation générale du livre, Compliance Monumental Goals, dans  lequel cet article est publié

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Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference complète : Marty, F., L'apport des programmes de conformité à la compétitivité internationale : une perspective concurrentielle, in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (dir.), Les buts monumentaux de la Compliance, series "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, to be published.

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► English Summary of this Article (done by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance):  The author analyzes economically the question of whether the compliance programs set up to respect competition rules are for the sole purpose of avoiding sanctions or also contribute to the goal of increasing the international economic performance of companies. which submit to them.

The author explains that companies integrate by duplication external standards to minimize the risk of sanctions, developing a "culture of compliance", which produces their competitiveness increase and the effectiveness of the legal and economic system. In addition, it reduces the cost of investment, which increases the attractiveness of the company.

In this, this presentation based on the postulate of the rationality of companies and investors, compliance programs can fall under self-regulation. The duplication of the law that they operate takes place largely according to "procedural" type methods.

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📕go to the general presentation of the book, Les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance, in which this article is published.

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Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Douvreleur, O.,  Compliance and Judge ruling only on points of Law, in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Compliance Jurisdictionalisationseries "Compliance & Regulation", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, to be published. 

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 Article Summary (done by the Journal of Regulation): Compliance maintains with the judge complex relations, and even more with the judge ruling only on points of Law  (in France, the Court de Cassation in the judicial order, the one who, in principle, does not know the facts that he leaves to the sovereign appreciation of the judges ruling on the substance of the disputes. At first glance, compliance is a technique internalised in companies and the place occupied by negotiated justice techniques leave little room for intervention by the judge ruling only on points of Law

However, his role is intended to develop, in particular with regard to the duty of vigilance or in the articulation between the different branches of Law when compliance meets Labor Law, or even in the adjustment between American Law and the other legal systems, especially French legal system. The way in which the principle of Proportionality will take place in Compliance Law is also a major issue for the judge ruling only on points of Law.

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📘 read the general presentation of the book, Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, in which this article is published

 

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Oct. 26, 2022

Publications

 Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., "Conforter le rôle du Juge et de l'Avocats pour imposer la Compliance comme caractéristique de l'Etat de Droit" (Reinforce the Judge and the Attorney to impose Compliance Law as a characteristic of the Rule of Law) , in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (dir.), La juridictionnalisation de la Complianceseries "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, to be published. 

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 this article is the introduction of the book.  

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 English Summary of the article: One can understand that the compliance mechanisms are presented with hostility because they seem designed to keep the judge away, whereas there is no Rule of Law without a judge. Solid arguments present compliance techniques as converging towards the uselessness of the judge (I). Certainly, we come across magistrates, and of all kinds, and powerful ones, but that would be a sign of imperfection: its ex-ante logic has been deployed in all its effectiveness, the judge would no longer be required... And the lawyer would disappear so with him...

This perspective of a world without a judge, without a lawyer and ultimately without Law, where algorithms could organize through multiple processes in Ex Ante the obedience of everyone, the "conformity" of all our behaviors with all the regulatory mass that is applicable to us, supposes that this new branch of Law would be defined as the concentration of processes which gives full effectiveness to all the rules, regardless of their content. But supposing that this engineer's dream is even achievable, it is not possible in a democratic and free world to do without judges and lawyers.

Therefore, it is imperative to recognize their contributions to Compliance Law, related and invaluable contributions (II).

First of all, because a pure Ex Ante never existed and even in the time of the Chinese legists, people were still needed to interpret the regulations because a legal order must always be interpreted Ex Post by who must in any case answer the questions posed by the subjects of law, as soon as the political system admits to attributing to them the right to make claims before the Judge. Secondly the Attorney, whose office, although articulated with the Judge's office, is distinct from the latter, both more restricted and broader since he must appear in all cases where the judicial figure puts himself in square, outside the courts. However, Compliance Law has multiplied this since not only, extending Regulatory Law, it entrusts numerous powers to the administrative authorities, but it also transforms companies into judges, in respect of which the attorneys must deal with.

Even more so, Compliance Law only takes its sense from its Monumental Goals. It is in this that this branch of the Law preserves the freedom of human beings, in the digital space where the techniques of compliance protect them from the power of companies by the way that the Compliance Law forces these companies to use their power to protect people. However, firstly, it is the Judges who, in their diversity, impose as a reference the protection of human beings, either as a limit to the power of compliance tools or as their very purpose. Secondly, the Attorney, again distinguishing himself from the Judge, if necessary, reminds us that all the parties whose interests are involved must be taken into consideration. In an ever more flexible, soft, and dialogical Law, everyone presenting himself as the "advocate" of such and such a monumental goal: the Attorney is legitimate to be the first to occupy this place.

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper which is the basis of this article, with more developments, technical references and hypertext links. 

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📕 read the general presentation of the book, La Juridictionnalisation de la Compliance, in this article is published.

________

 

Oct. 12, 2022

Conferences

 

► Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.A., La compliance en entreprise : aspects théoriques et pratiques, in 118ième Congrès des Notaires, L'ingénierie notariale, Marseilles, October 12, 2022. 

This Masterclass is given in French.

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► English Presentation of this Masterclass: This two-hour Masterclass aims to introduce, regarding the role of the Notary in companies and vis-à-vis them, Compliance Law

This discover of Compliance Law is built on a description of the new Compliance techniques of which companies are the object or the source (I) then, faced with such a mass of new standards, because this is incomprehensible and uncontrollable if these so many regulations are not "conceived", explain what can give meaning to this Compliance Law, namely the "Monumental Goals" which animate it and give it meaning (II). Like the Regulation Law that Compliance prolongs, Compliance Law is a teleological branch of law that requires that the application and interpretation of norms be done by these Monumental Goals.

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This Masterclass is given in French: see some technical references in English ⤵️

July 6, 2022

Publications

► Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, "L'appui du Droit de la Compliance pour la maîtrise quotidienne du Droit de la concurrence" ("The support of Compliance Law for the daily mastery of Competition Law"), in Mélanges offerts à Laurence Idot, Concurrence et Europe, vol.1, Concurrences, 2022, p. 369-374.

This article is written in French.

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► English summary of this article: Competition Law has become so huge and has included so many regulations and "regulatory" perspective that we end up giving up trying to grasp it as a whole, preferring to become a specialist in one of its parts.  That would be to lose sight of the simple and strong reason that unites the whole and gives it its breath: Freedom.

Freedom experienced by the persons in their daily economic action, Freedom guarded by Competition Law, always returning to its principle: Free Competition. Therefore, the European Union places great emphasis on Competition. To make effective and to keep it in this state, “Competition Policy” is based on Competition Law, but if authorities and judges do not blame companies for their power, they do not rely on it.

To do this, Competition Law must be supported by Compliance Law, which strongly encourages companies to act for the effectiveness and the promotion of competitive principles. Competition Law is thus slipping from the Ex-Post towards the Ex-Ante, the commitments of companies leading them to cease being passive, even punished, to become convinced actors and themselves pedagogues. Something to please a great Professor of Competition Law, to whom homage is paid here.

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► Read the Table of Content of the book in which this article is published (in French)

____

🚧Read the Working Paper, basis of this article. 

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📝read the article (written in French)

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May 18, 2022

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Meziani, L., Ch., Proportionality in Compliance, the guarantee of public order in companies, in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Compliance Monumental Goals, series "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, to be published.

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► Article Summary (done by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance):  The author emphasizes the part that companies take not only in the application of Compliance mechanisms but also in their establishment, as soon as Proportionality, a mechanism that guarantees public order, is respected. It emphasizes the link between Compliance and Ethics, since the company is directly in charge of the people who work for it and in its name, the company being a way of social integration. The way in which the company organizes itself so that the people within it are treated fairly is a major factor in an effective Compliance culture.

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📘go to the general presentation of the book in which this article is published.

 

________

 

 

May 18, 2022

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Meziani, L., L., Proportionnalité en Compliance, garant de l’ordre public en entreprise ("Proportionality in Compliance, the guarantee of public order in companies"), in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (dir.), Les buts monumentaux de la Compliance, series "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, to be published.

____

► English Summary of the Article (done by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance):  The author emphasizes the part that companies take not only in the application of Compliance mechanisms but also in their establishment, as soon as Proportionality, a mechanism that guarantees public order, is respected. It emphasizes the link between Compliance and Ethics, since the company is directly in charge of the people who work for it and in its name, the company being a way of social integration. The way in which the company organizes itself so that the people within it are treated fairly is a major factor in an effective Compliance culture.

____

 

📕Go to the general presentation  générale of the Book, Les Buts Monumentaux de la Compliance, in which this article is published.

________

 

 

March 31, 2022

Publications : Chronicles MAFR - Compliance Law

► Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., La responsabilité ex ante, pilier du droit de la compliance ("Ex-Ante Responsibility, Compliance Law Pillar"), D.2022, chronique MAFR - Droit de la Compliance, Recueil Dalloz, March 31, 2022.

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► Article English Summary: The Law must help to face the future, which can be totally catastrophic in terms of climate and digital issues. Courts are s best placed for this, without “governing”, only relying on the commitments made by companies, governments, and legislators.  On the ordinary Tort Law, court decisions oblige these different entities to be consistent in the commitments they have made, obliging them to act in the future, formal “compliance” with the regulations cannot be sufficient. This ex-ante responsibility, founding the powers, thus constitutes a pillar of a substantial Compliance Law, showing the part that CSR and the companies with a raison d'être play in it.

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📝 read the article. (written in French)

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📚go to the presentation of the other articles published in this Chronique Droit de la Compliance made in the Recueil Dalloz

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Sept. 23, 2021

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Scemla, S. & Paillot, D., The supervisory authorities face difficulties to apprehend the rights of the defence in Compliance matters, in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.),Compliance Jurisdictionalisationsérie "Compliance & Regulation", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, to be published.

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 Article Summary(done by the Author) : Since 2016, French companies subject to the provisions of the so-called “Sapin 2” Law must implement eight stringent anti-corruption measures, such as a risk mapping, a whistleblowing procedure or a third-party due diligence procedure.

To ensure their compliance with these obligations, the Sapin 2 law created the Agence française anticorruption - AFA (French Anti-Corruption Agency), which had been assigned three missions: firstly, to help any person prevent and detect corruption; secondly, to control the quality and effectiveness of the anti-corruption programs deployed by the companies; and thirdly, to sanction any breaches, through its Sanctions Committee.

As pointed out by the French Conseil d’Etat, the powers devolved to the administrations have multiplied and became stratified. While the Conseil d'Etat suggests to improve both the conduct and the effectiveness of administrative controls by harmonising their practices and simplifying their prerogatives, it is urgent to remedy the numerous procedural failures that undermine the rights of defence.

In fact, the AFA exercises various powers when undertaking its controls. Some of these powers are not provided for by the Law, and most of them infringe fundamental rights and freedoms among which the adversarial principle and the freedom not to self-incriminate. For instance, the AFA does not necessarily draft minutes of the interviews it conducts, thus depriving the interviewee of the possibility to challenge the statements reported by the AFA to the Sanctions Committee.

From a more structural point of view, the scope of the AFA's mission is extremely broad. The Law allows the AFA to request the communication of "any professional document or any useful information", without defining the notion of usefulness. Also, the AFA considers that the entity cannot benefit from the legal privilege that would cover their documents, and considers that an entity who voluntarily hands over a document, without expressing any reserves, waives its right to the benefit of its legal privilege.

Apart from the severe consequences that could arise if another proceedings was to be initiated by a foreign authority, the concept of "voluntary handover" does not faithfully reflect the reality. Indeed, the controlled entities only cooperate under the threat of being prosecuted on the basis of an obstruction to the control, which compels them to communicate documents even when facing the risk of contributing to their own incrimination.

These many procedural deficiencies encountered during AFA controls must therefore be reformed, as recommended by the Conseil d’Etat, so as to require the authorities to take into account the rights of the defence.

 

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📝 read the general presentation of the book in which this article is published

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Updated: Sept. 17, 2021 (Initial publication: Sept. 3, 2021)

MAFR TV

 Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., Le droit de la Compliance : un outil stratégique pour une Europe souveraine (Compliance law: a strategic tool for a sovereign Europe), interview with Jean-Philippe Denis, recorded on July 3, 2021 and broadcast on September 17, 2021

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🎥 Watch the interview, as broadcast on Xerfi Canal channels. 

 

🎥Watch the interview enhanced with French subtitles

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►Summary: Compliance Law powerfully and clearly helps to build a sovereign Europe. 
Compliance Law is not the annex of Competition Law; it is another branch of Law, which aims instead to rely on the de facto power of companies, when they are in a position to achieve the "Monumental Goals" that the Political Authorities have decided to achieve, which requires an alliance between them and those companies in a position to achieve these "Monumental Goals".

Companies can do this because they are in a position to do so, in that they are well located to act, have the information, the technology and the adequate financial means.)

Compliance is a construction tool, and not, as it is still sometimes presented, a means to limit the ability of those who are concretely able to build, i.e. the companies. The architect remains and must remain the Politics. But the company remains the master of the means to achieve these goals, and free to duplicate them in its own care, via CSR, "raison d'être" and ethics.

 

Aug. 16, 2021

Publications

 Full Reference: Frison-Roche, M.-AReinforce the judge and the lawyer to impose Compliance Law as a characteristic of the Rule of Law, Working Paper, August 2021.

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🎤 this working document has been made to prepare some elements of the opening intervention in the symposium Quels juges pour la Compliance) ? (Which judges for Compliance?), co-organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance and the Institut Droit Dauphine, held at the Paris Dauphine University on September 23, 2021, constituting the first part of the intervention.

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📝it has been also the basis for an article

📕 published in its French version in the book La juridictionnalisation de la Compliance, in the collection📚Régulations & Compliance

 📘published in its English version in the book Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, in the collection 📚Compliance & Regulation

____

 Summary of the Working Paper: One can understand that the compliance mechanisms are presented with hostility because they seem designed to keep the judge away, whereas there is no Rule of Law without a judge. Solid arguments present compliance techniques as converging towards the uselessness of the judge (I). Certainly, we come across magistrates, and of all kinds, and powerful ones, but that would be a sign of imperfection: its ex-ante logic has been deployed in all its effectiveness, the judge would no longer be required... And the lawyer would disappear so with him...

This perspective of a world without a judge, without a lawyer and ultimately without Law, where algorithms could organize through multiple processes in Ex Ante the obedience of everyone, the "conformity" of all our behaviors with all the regulatory mass that is applicable to us, supposes that this new branch of Law would be defined as the concentration of processes which gives full effectiveness to all the rules, regardless of their content. But supposing that this engineer's dream is even achievable, it is not possible in a democratic and free world to do without judges and lawyers.

Therefore, it is imperative to recognize their contributions to Compliance Law, related and invaluable contributions (II).

First of all, because a pure Ex Ante never existed and even in the time of the Chinese legists📎!footnote-2689, people were still needed to interpret the regulations because a legal order must always be interpreted Ex Post by who must in any case answer the questions posed by the subjects of law, as soon as the political system admits to attributing to them the right to make claims before the Judge. Secondly the Attorney, whose office, although articulated with the Judge's office, is distinct from the latter, both more restricted and broader since he must appear in all cases where the judicial figure puts himself in square, outside the courts. However, Compliance Law has multiplied this since not only, extending Regulatory Law, it entrusts numerous powers to the administrative authorities, but it also transforms companies into judges, in respect of which the attorneys must deal with.

Even more so, Compliance Law only takes its sense from its Monumental Goals📎!footnote-2690. It is in this that this branch of the Law preserves the freedom of human beings, in the digital space where the techniques of compliance protect them from the power of companies by the way that the Compliance Law forces these companies to use their power to protect people. However, firstly, it is the Judges who, in their diversity📎!footnote-2691, impose as a reference the protection of human beings, either as a limit to the power of compliance tools📎!footnote-2692 or as their very purpose. Secondly, the Attorney, again distinguishing himself from the Judge, if necessary, reminds us that all the parties whose interests are involved must be taken into consideration. In an ever more flexible, soft and dialogical Law, everyone presenting himself as the "advocate" of such and such a monumental goal: the Attorney is legitimate to be the first to occupy this place.

____

🔓read the Working Paper developments below⤵️

1

 L’empire chinois n’a semble-t-il jamais apprécié les juges, ne leur faisant place que sous la forme de serviteurs purs de l’Etat, qu’ils soient des enquêteurs, des punisseurs et de gardiens de l’ordre public. Sur cet aspect du Droit chinois, v. … ; sur cette période particulièrement sanglante des légistes, où le principe de « certitude » de la législation a été portée à ses nues, v. …

2

🕴️Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), 📘​Compliance Monumental Goals, 2022.

3

The topic of this study is general. For a more analytical perspective, s.. 🕴️Frison-Roche, M.-A., « The function of the Judge in Compliance Law », in 🕴️Frison-Roche, M.A. (ed.), 📘Compliance Jurisdictionalisation2023. 

4

🕴️Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), 📘Compliance Tools, 2021. 

June 23, 2021

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Coulon, J.-M.,  La façon dont une entreprise fonctionne pour concrétiser le Droit de la Compliance : l'exemple du secteur de la construction ("How a company works to make Compliance Law a reality: the statutes of processes"), in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), La juridictionnalisation de la Complianceseries "Régulations & Compliance", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, to be published. 

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 The summary below describes an article following the colloquium L'entreprise instituée Juge et Procureur d'elle-même par le Droit de la Compliance (The Entreprise instituted Judge and Prosecutor of itself by Compliance Law) , co-organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and the Faculté de Droit Lyon 3. This manifestation was designed under the scientific direction of Marie-Anne Frison-Roche and Jean-Christophe Roda and took place in Lyon on June 23, 2021. During this colloquium, the intervention was shared with Christophe Lapp, who is also a contributor in the book (see the summary of the Jean-Marc Coulon's Article).

In the book, the article will be published in Title I, devoted to:  L'entreprise instituée Juge et Procureur d'elle-même par le Droit de la Compliance (The Entreprise instituted Judge and Prosecutor of itself by Compliance Law ).

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 Article Summary (done by the author) : The construction industry is not a regulated sector. Its market is made up of a superposition of territorial strata which are all relevant markets, to which corresponds a specific microcosm of companies. Finally, the temporary association between companies for the purposes of carrying out a project or a work is consubstantial with this sector.

The penetration of Compliance in this sector is inevitably very heterogeneous and results from both exogenous factors (other partners within temporary associations, influence of economic operators from other sectors of activity, capital providers and lenders, incitations from professional organizations ) the endogenous (submission to a Financial Regulatory Authority because the company is listed ; application of the laws on duty of vigilance, and French Law called "Sapin 2"). For example, subject to all these factors combined, the Bouygues group is particularly sensitive to compliance.

Not only internal "legislator", the Bouygues group finds itself in turn "prosecutor and judge" both of itself and of others. Indeed, leading an investigation, filing a complaint, triggering an ethics alert, making use of the leniency program, this group is, however, no other than a sort of assistant for the Prosecutor. In addition, scrutinizing its stakeholders, sanctioning its employees, resorting to a Convention Judiciaire d'intérêt public (judicial agreement in the public interest) or negotiating its sanction within the framework of a procedure instituted by a multilateral bank, it fulfills the function of a judge. Legislator, prosecutor, judge, the Bouygues group is faced with a paradox, in a way encouraged to exercise “sovereignty”, yet it does not benefit from the attributes attached to it or from the unwavering support of the competent Public Authorities.

____

 

📝 go to the general presentation to the book in which this article is published.

 

 

 

June 23, 2021

Thesaurus : Doctrine

 Full Reference: Coulon, J.-M., How a company works to make Compliance Law a reality: the example of the construction sector, in Frison-Roche, M.-A. (ed.), Compliance Jurisdictionalisationseries "Compliance & Regulation", Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, to be published. 

____

 The summary below describes an article following the colloquium The Entreprise instituted Judge and Prosecutor of itself by Compliance Law) , co-organized by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and the Faculté de Droit Lyon 3. This manifestation was designed under the scientific direction of Marie-Anne Frison-Roche and Jean-Christophe Roda and took place in Lyon on June 23, 2021. During this colloquium, the intervention was shared with Christophe Lapp, who is also a contributor in the book (see the summary of the Christophe Lapp's Article).

In the book, the article will be published in Title I, devoted to:  L'entreprise instituée Juge et Procureur d'elle-même par le Droit de la Compliance (The Entreprise instituted Judge and Prosecutor of itself by Compliance Law ).

___

 Article Summary (done by the author) : The construction industry is not a regulated sector. Its market is made up of a superposition of territorial strata which are all relevant markets, to which corresponds a specific microcosm of companies. Finally, the temporary association between companies for the purposes of carrying out a project or a work is consubstantial with this sector.

The penetration of Compliance in this sector is inevitably very heterogeneous and results from both exogenous factors (other partners within temporary associations, influence of economic operators from other sectors of activity, capital providers and lender, incitations from professional organizations ) the endogenous (submission to a Financial Regulatory Authority because the company is listed ; application of the laws on duty of vigilance, and French Law called "Sapin 2"). For example, subject to all these factors combined, the Bouygues group is particularly sensitive to compliance.

Not only internal "legislator", the Bouygues group finds itself in turn "prosecutor and judge" both of itself and of others. Indeed, leading an investigation, filing a complaint, triggering an ethics alert, making use of the leniency program, this group is, however, no other than a sort of assistant for the Prosecutor. In addition, scrutinizing its stakeholders, sanctioning its employees, resorting to a Convention Judiciaire d'intérêt public (judicial agreement in the public interest) or negotiating its sanction within the framework of a procedure instituted by a multilateral bank, it fulfills the function of a judge. Legislator, prosecutor, judge, the Bouygues group is faced with a paradox, in a way encouraged to exercise “sovereignty”, yet it does not benefit from the attributes attached to it or from the unwavering support of the competent Public Authorities.

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📝 go to the general presentation of the book in which this article in published.

March 18, 2021

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Full reference: Camy, J., Loi sur le devoir de vigilance et loi Sapin II: quelles obligations des entreprises?, JCP Entreprise, n°11, 17th of March 2021, p. 17-28

Feb. 9, 2021

Conferences

Full reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A., Devoir de vigilance des entreprises : vers un Droit de la responsabilité ex ante ? (Duty of vigilance for companies: towards an ex ante liability law?), conference-debate, The Faculty of Law, University of Oslo, Norway, 9th of February 2021. 

The conference-debate is moderated by Catherine Banet, Associate Professor, Scandinavian Insitute of Maritime Law, Department of Energy and Resources Law, University of Oslo

Dec. 10, 2020

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Full reference: Gallois, J., Responsabilité pénale de la société absorbante pour des faits commis par la société absorbée (Criminal liability of the acquiring company for acts committed by the absorbed company), Dalloz Actualités, 10th of December 2020

Read the article (in French)

Read the decision of the Cour de Cassation commented in this article

Nov. 30, 2020

Thesaurus : Soft Law

Full reference: Chapron, J.-P., Dubost, C. and  Imalhayene, F., Labels RSE. Accompagner les entreprises et donner confiance à leurs parties prenantes (CSR labels. Support companies and give confidence to their stakeholders), Report submitted to the French Minister of Economy and Finances, 30th of November 2020, 81p.

 

Read the report (in French)

Read the synthesis of the observations and recommendations of this report by the Secretary to social, solidarity and responsible economy (in French)

Sept. 28, 2020

Thesaurus : Soft Law

Full reference: Giuliani-Viallard, A., The Europe of Compliance, at the heart of tomorrow's world. For a transformation of our European businesses and the upturn in their international competitiveness, European Issue, n°572, policy paper from the Robert Schuman Foundation, 28th of September 2020, 3 p.

Read the policy paper

Aug. 20, 2020

Thesaurus : Doctrine

► Référence complète : Dreyfuss, S., Remplacer la culture de la corruption par une culture de la compliance : l’Europe prend ses responsabilités pour son propre avenir, Le Grand Continent, août 2020. 

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📝 Lire l'article. 

March 18, 2020

Publications

Référence générale : Frison-Roche, M.-A., L'avocat, porteur de conviction dans le nouveau système de Compliance, Dalloz Avocat, mars 2020.

This editorial opens a thematic collective publication about Compliance.

A synthetic article on all the contributions, published in May 2020, mirrors it: "Attorney and Compliance - The future of the character and his tool: Law, Humanism and Defense"

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English Summary of the article (written in French) : 

If we perceive Compliance Law as an aggression of the private company and a binding set of mechanisms that have no meaning and added value for it, then the attorney has a utility: to defend the business. It can do so not only during the sanctions phase, but also to prevent it.

But this function is not central.

He and she becomes so if we understand Compliance Law as being a body of substantial rules, pursuing a "monumental goal": the protection of the person, goal injected by political bodies and taken up by the operator. From this, the company must convince everyone to take it back, inside the company and outside. In a general and contradictory debate, the attorney carries this conviction, because he and shed is always convincing those who in the end judge (market, public opinion, etc.) that is their raison d'être.

 

Read the article

 

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Read the Working Paper underlying this article, with the technical references and all the articles serving as the basis for all the assertions in this article

 

 

 

 

 

Oct. 24, 2019

Thesaurus : 05.1. CEDH

Full reference: CEDH, 24th of October 2019, Carrefour France v. France, n°21488/14

Read the decision (in French)

Read the press release (in French)

 

Summary of the decision

In this decision, the ECHR convicts Carrefour France to a civil fine for practices restricting competition committed by the company Carrefour hypermarkets France, dissolved and absorbed by its sole shareholder Carrefour France after the facts.

 

Updated: Sept. 5, 2019 (Initial publication: April 30, 2019)

Publications

►  Full Reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A., L'apport du Droit de la Compliance dans la Gouvernance d'Internet  (The contribution of Compliance Law to the Internet Governance), Report asked by the French Government, published the 15th July 2019, 139 p.

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►  Report Summary. Governing the Internet? Compliance Law can help.

Compliance Law is for the Policy Maker to aim for global goals that they requires to be achieved by companies in a position to do so. In the digital space built on the sole principle of Liberty, the Politics must insert a second principle: the Person. The respect of this One, in balance with the Freedom, can be required by the Policy Maker via Compliance Law, which internalises this specific pretention in the digital companies. Liberalism and Humanism become the two pillars of Internet Governance.

The humanism of European Compliance Law then enriches US Compliance law. The crucial digital operators thus forced, like Facebook, YouTube, Google, etc., must then exercise powers only to better achieve these goals to protect persons (against hatred, inadequate exploitation of data, terrorism, violation of intellectual property, etc.). They must guarantee the rights of individuals, including intellectual property rights. To do this, they must be recognized as "second level regulators", supervised by Public Authorities.

This governance of the Internet by Compliance Law is ongoing. By the European Banking Union. By green finance. By the GDPR. We must force the line and give unity and simplicity that are still lacking, by infusing a political dimension to Compliance: the Person. The European Court of Justice has always done it. The European Commission through its DG Connect is ready.

 

► 📓 Read the reporte (in French)

📝 Read the Report Summary in 3 pages (in English)

📝 Read the Report Summary in 6 pages (in English)

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►  Plan of the Report (4 chapters): an ascertainment of the digitization of the world (1), the challenge of civilization that this constitutes (2), the relations of Compliance mechanisms as it should be conceived between Europe and the United States, not to mention that the world is not limited to them, with the concrete solutions that result from this (3) and concrete practical solutions to better organize an effective digital governance, inspired by what is particularly in the banking sector, and continuing what has already been done in Europe in the digital field, which has already made it exemplary and what it must continue, France can be force of proposal by the example (4).

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📝  Read the written presentation of the Report done by Minister Cédric O (in French).

🏛 Listen to the oral  presentation of the Report by Minister Cédric O durant the parliamentary discussion of the law against hate contente on the Internet (in French).

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💬 Read the interview published the 18 July 2019 : "Gouvernance d'Internet : un enjeu de civilisation" ( "Governing Internet: an Issue of Civilization"), given in French, 

📻 Listen the Radio broadcast of July 21, 2019 during which its consequences are applied to the cryptocurrency "Libra" (given in French)

🏛 Presentation of the Report to the Conseil Supérieur de l'Audiovisuel- CSA (French Council of Audiovisual) on Septembre 5, by a discussion with its members presentation (in French)

💬 Read the  Interview published the 20 December 2019 : "Le droit de la compliance pour réguler l'Internet" ("Compliance Law for regulate Internet"), given in French

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read below the 54 propositions of the Report ⤵️