Publications [761]

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🌐suivre Marie-Anne Frison-Roche sur LinkedIn

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 Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "La Volonté, le Cœur et le Calcul", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), L'obligation de ComplianceJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance", 2024, à paraître

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 Résumé de l'article (fait par le Journal of Regulation & Compliance - JoRC) :

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Publications

🌐suivre Marie-Anne Frison-Roche sur LinkedIn

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 Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Le Juge requis pour une Obligation de Compliance effective", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), L'Obligation de ComplianceJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance", 2024, à paraître

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 Résumé de l'article (fait par le Journal of Regulation & Compliance - JoRC) : Le Juge est un personnage qui parait faible dans un Droit de la Compliance qui lui paraît si puissant dans un monde où la technologie développe une puissance encore plus impressionnante. Mais les cas présents et futurs montrent au contraire sa place centrale et que son rôle doit pourtant être de mettre la force qui lui est propre à demeurer ce qu'il est : le gardien de l'État de Droit, ce qui n'est pas si évident car de nombreux outils de la Compliance, de nature technologique, sont en quelque sorte "insensibles" à ce à quoi nous sommes attachés, la protection des êtres humains qui s'appuie sur les diligences des entreprises (I).  Le deuxième rôle que nous pouvons attendre du Juge est  que non seulement il aide à permettre la permanence de cet État de Droit qui repose en grande partie sur lui face à un monde futur, en ce que celui-ci nous est inconnu, principalement dans sa dimension numérique et climatique, perspectives que le Droit de la Compliance veut, en renouvelant le Droit de la Régulation, saisir, en agissant à l'égard des entreprises dont le rôle est actif, ce qui conduit le Juge à les contrôler et à connaître les prétentions que l'on peut formuler contre celles-ci, sans se substituer au pouvoir de gestion de celles-ci (II). Cela suppose une méthode renouvelée (III), ce sont alors tous les juges, pourtant si divers, qui vont converger dans un dialogue actif des juges, qui va permettre que puisse en premier temps perdurer le rôle classique du juge, lié à l'Etat de Droit, dans un monde en plein mouvement et en second lieu que chaque juge puisse porter ce nouvel rôle qu'implique le Droit de la Compliance (IV).

Se mettra alors en place ce triangle parfait, dont la force et la simplicité permet l'usage du singulier et la conservation des majuscules à chacun de ces trois termes : Régulation Compliance Juge.

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🌐suivre Marie-Anne Frison-Roche sur LinkedIn

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 Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Articulation systémique entre Vigilance, Due diligence, conformité et Compliance : la Vigilance, part totale de l’Obligation de Compliance", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), L'obligation de ComplianceJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance", 2024, à paraître

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 Résumé de l'article : Le "devoir de vigilance" déchaine d'autant plus de positions radicales et passionnées, parfois chez les professeurs de droit, qu'il n'a pas été défini. L'on emploie un mot pour un autre, par mégarde ou par dessein, par dessein si l'on peut attirer tel ou tel élément d'un régime juridique de l'on convoite, par mégarde car c'est souvent par inadvertance que les mots du Droit sont maltraités.  L'exercice même de définition, notamment celui très périlleux de "devoir" étant mené dans la partie de l'ouvrage visant à "cerner l'obligation de compliance", il s'agit ici de démêler ce que l'on semble utiliser l'un pour l'autre : la vigilance, le duty of care, la due diligence. 

La loi française de 2017 dite "Vigilance" reprenant les dispositifs techniques de la loi de 2016 dite "Sapin 2", avec les plans, les audits, etc., cela renvoie au Droit de la compliance, auquel l'on substitue souvent le terme de "conformité", avec des conséquences pratiques très dommageables, comme on le fit il y a 20 ans quand on affirmait que le "Droit de la Régulation" devait être dénommé le "Droit de la réglementation"!footnote-3440.

Chacun de ces termes renvoient à des notions différentes. Le Législateur n'aide pas puisqu'il les utilisent souvent les uns pour les autres, le passage entre l'anglais et le français valant circonstance atténuante mais laissant le dysfonctionnement entier.

Il convient donc tout d'abord de redonner à chacun de ces termes juridiques leur signification (I). Il apparaît ainsi que le la Vigilance est la "pointe avancée" du Droit de la Compliance, lequel ayant été distingué de ce qui n'est que son outil, à savoir la "conformité". 

En effet, la Vigilance est une "pointe avancée en ce qu'elle est qui donne plus de visibilité à un système plus vaste qu'est le Droit de la Compliance, ce qui justifie donc un esprit de système et implique une méthode de réalisation du Droit qui est ici de nature téléologique, puisque le Droit de la Complique puise sa normativité dans les Buts Monumentaux, ce dont la technique de vigilance donne un exemple éclatant à travers le souci de l'environnement et des droits subjectifs de la personne (II).

A partir de ces bases méthodologiques, il est possible de s'extraire de la masse réglementaire qui prolifère dans les sujets de vigilance qui ne sont en rien limités à la loi  de 2017, pour traiter les sujets impliqués par la Vigilance en la replaçant dans le système du Droit de la Compliance, sans la pulvériser dans toutes les réglementations sectorielles où elle est déjà très présente ni être suspendu à l'adoption ou pas à la Directive européennes, ni se demander si un juge ou un autre va décider d'une façon ou d'une autre. 

En effet, ce Droit de la Compliance produit ce que j'ai pu qualifier de "causes systémiques", qui sont portées devant le juge, notamment par des parties prenantes, ce qui est en train de produire un renouvellement de l'office du juge (III). En raison d'un activisme judiciaire d'organisations, c'est par cette pointe avancée de la Vigilance que l'ensemble du Droit de la Compliance est en train de mettre le Juge au centre, comme cela fût montré dans l'ouvrage de 2023 La juridictionnalisation de la compliance, puis repris par le Conseil d'Etat et la Cour de cassation dans l'ouvrage à paraître De la Régulation à la Compliance : la place du juge. 

L'évolution du Droit positif confirme que la Vigilance est donc la "part totale" du Droit de la Compliance.

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mafr, Compliance et conformité : les distinguer pour mieux les articuler, 2024.

Publications

🌐suivre Marie-Anne Frison-Roche sur LinkedIn

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 Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "L’obligation de compliance, entre volonté et consentement : obligation sur obligation vaut", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), L'obligation de ComplianceJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance", 2024, à paraître

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 Résumé de l'article (fait par le Journal of Regulation & Compliance - JoRC) :

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Publications

🌐suivre Marie-Anne Frison-Roche sur LinkedIn

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► Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Le devoir de vigilance : comment progresser", in A. Bres & C. Maubernard (dir.), Le devoir de vigilance des entreprises : l'âge de la maturité ?, Bruylant, coll. "Droit & Economie", à paraître

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► Résumé de l'article : La critique est toujours facile, l'art est toujours difficile et le progrès est toujours possible. C'est ainsi qu'il est raisonnable d'appréhender ce "devoir de vigilance" que le Législateur français fît rentrer avec éclat dans l'ordre juridique, chacun se demandant s'il était tout à fait nouveau, ou non, si l'on pouvait le retrouver sous d'autres appellations, ou non. 

Comme si la Loi dite Vigilance avait réussi à attraper dans sa cage ce bel oiseau dont on attend tant de choses et dont on craint tant la puissance📎!footnote-3441 :

L'on peut songer à 8 façons d'améliorer le Droit qui exprime le devoir de vigilance, ces voies ne s'excluant en rien les unes des autres.

La première voie est la progression par l'écoulement du temps, retrouvant ce qui dans le passé était déjà de la vigilance et ce qui dans le futur sera son déploiement. Il n'y a jamais de page blanche, ce qui est vrai pour le Code civil l'est aussi pour la Vigilance qui est la pointe avancée du Droit de la Compliance, laquelle est le prolongement du Droit de la Régulation.

La deuxième voie est la progression par la fixation du vocabulaire, car nous assistons à une grande bataille des mots, ouvertement ou en sourdine, en français ou en anglais. Or, le Droit est fiable pour l'attribution de régimes juridiques à des mots ancrés, ce qui n'est pas pour l'instant le cas.

La troisième voie est la progression par l'émergence de principes, voire d'un principe, retrouvés ou inventés. Le principe est cela d'une "obligation de vigilance" qui repose sur certaines entreprises, obligation qui consiste à "détecter" et à "prévenir" afin de préserver à l'avenir des systèmes qu'elles ont contribué à structurer, les "chaines de valeur" étant un exemple de cela. Cette obligation de moyens conduit à observer les "efforts" que l'entreprise assujettie (et non pas débitrice, sauf à ce qu'elle contractualise son obligation légale) déploie pour atteindre ce but systémique monumental. 

La quatrième voie est la progression par la mise en cohérence du ou des systèmes juridiques, pour l'instant frappés de lacunes et d'incohérences, ce à quoi pourraient pallier des méthodes comme la centralisation du contentieux ou, plus radicalement, l'indifférence aux frontières. Les marges de progrès sont ici très grandes et il ne faut le reprocher ni aux juges ni en entreprises, Rome ne s'est pas faite en un jour. Cette mise en cohérence ne passe pas forcément par le Droit international privé ou public, mais par des dialogues, voie plus souple et incertaine, tout au long des processus, aussi bien dans l'élaboration des plans et programmes que dans les contentieux eux-mêmes. La médiation est ainsi une voie à privilégier.

La cinquième voie est la progression par le fait que cela marche car les techniques de vigilance étant celles de la Compliance, dont la vigilance est la pointe avancée, l'enjeu est de trouver des solutions. La notion de "remédiation", qui est assez peu mise en valeur, doit être mise au centre. Le tryptique "effectivité, efficacité, efficience", issue du Droit de la Compliance doit être repris. Les techniques d'évaluation d'une part et de supervision d'autre part en découlent.

La sixième voie est la progression est le fait d'utiliser la puissance du Droit non seulement pour construire de nouvelles pertinences, et pour commencer la notion de vigilance mais aussi celle de chaine de valeur, mais encore pour imposer de nouvelles indifférences, à savoir l'indifférences à la figure du marché (à laquelle on préfère l'entreprise et la filière) et l'indifférence aux frontières. Le premier mouvement revient à revenir à 50 ans d'excès où le principe de concurrence semblait suffire à tout faire tourner en Droit, pour une conception des espaces publics, notamment celui de l'Union européenne, où l'articulation de deux piliers complémentaires, celui de la concurrence et celui de la compliance, que la vigilance écrit en lettres plus discernables, permet de maintenir un système durable et humain.

La septième voie est la progression par le rapprochement des perspectives, afin de trouver des solutions alors même que les intérêts soient opposés. C'est pour cela que les deux techniques que sont le contrat d'une part et la médiation d'autre part sont au cœur. Les "engagements", dont on mesure assez mal la portée, certains voulant leur en donner trop peu, d'autre voulant leur en donner trop, montrent l'articulation entre la volonté et la dimension structurelle de la Vigilance.

La huitième voie est la progression par la culture, car la culture de vigilance, comme la culture de compliance, doit se développer dans les entreprises et les filières, et doit devenir commune à celles-ci et aux parties prenantes. Pour le développement de cette culture de Vigilance, le juge est au centre, cela va apparaître de plus en plus. Il s'agira des juges civils, mais aussi des juges commerciaux, des juges administratifs et des arbitres internationaux.

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L'épervier Vigilance et le pays au nom oublié, 2023, in Les Aventures de l'Ogre Compilance.

Publications

🌐suivre Marie-Anne Frison-Roche sur LinkedIn

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 Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Ce qu'est un engagement", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), L'Obligation de ComplianceJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance", 2024, à paraître

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 Résumé de l'article (fait par le Journal of Regulation & Compliance - JoRC) : Que les engagements, en tant que paroles, constituent des faits pouvant engager la responsabilité des entreprises s'il y a incohérences, ou mensonges, nul n'en doute. La question est aujourd'hui celle de savoir si un engagement peut constituer un acte juridique, liant ex ante.

Les entreprises s'engagent, soit pour concrétiser leurs obligations légales de Compliance, ce qui n'est alors qu'une obéissance à la loi, soit pour exprimer une volonté propre, soit pour elles-mêmes, soit pour autrui. Les cas sont souvent confondus, alors que les portées ne sont pas les mêmes.

Si l'engagement prend la forme d'un contrat, la Compliance est concernée si le contrat est manié comme Outil de Compliance Ex Ante📎!footnote-3436, soit que l'ensemble du contrat ait cet objet, soit qu'une clause de compliance soit insérée, une clause compromissoire pouvant s'y articuler.

L'engagement, notion venue plutôt de l'Économie de la Regulation, a été pensé entre une Autorité de Régulation et une Entreprise : c'est la décision unilatérale de l'Autorité qui donne une force juridique à l'engagement. La jurisprudence le confirme (Conseil d'État📎!footnote-3437 et Conseil constitutionnel📎!footnote-3438) et cela est particulièrement net en Droit de la concurrence, mais cela est également vrai de la convention judiciaire d'intérêt public (CJIP).

Si l'engagement est central en Compliance, notamment en Vigilance, c'est parce que le Droit de la Compliance est le prolongement du Droit de la Régulation📎!footnote-3439. L'entreprise est instituée de force par la Compliance régulateur, notamment dans les chaines de valeur, ou sur les espaces numériques (DSA).

Dans l'élaboration d'un plan, l'entreprise exécute son obligation légale. Mais si l'on devait considérer qu'il s'agit d'un engagement, alors il faudrait aussi considérer que le plan résulte de sa volonté, qu'elle doit dans son élaboration consulter les parties prenantes mais que la source du plan est sa volonté : les dispositions ne sont pas des stipulations, ne sont pas des applications de la loi, mais des dispositions volontaires unilatérales.

A ce titre, et parce que sa source est la volonté de l'entreprise (ce qui n'empêche pas sa co-construction), un plan pourrait contenir une "offre graduée" d'arbitrage.

Cette offre peut être insérée dans des engagements moins encadrés par la loi, comme tous ceux pris au titre de la RSE.

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🌐suivre Marie-Anne Frison-Roche sur LinkedIn

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 Référence complète : M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Concevoir l’unicité de l’Obligation de Compliance sans la diluer", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), L'obligation de ComplianceJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance", 2024, à paraître

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► Cet article constitue l'introduction de l'ouvrage

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 Résumé de l'article (fait par le Journal of Regulation & Compliance - JoRC) :

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Le droit processuel, prototype de l'Obligation de Compliance"  (General Procedural Law, prototype of Compliance Obligation), in M.-A. Frison-Roche (dir.), L'obligation de ComplianceJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance", 2024, forthcoming.

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper on which this article was based, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks

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📕read the general presentation of the book, L'obligation de Compliance, in which this article is published

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 English Summary of this article: A number of ideas are beginning to emerge to describe the relationship that needs to be built up between General Procedural Law and Compliance Obligation, if only to take account of the emerging litigation in the field of Compliance Law.

At first sight, however, it would appear that Compliance Law does not give rise to any procedural obligation, since Compliance is designed to develop ex ante, in order to avoid the courts. Compliance by design should perfect this aim, the presence of any jurisdictional proceedings being a failure in itself and because of the delays and uncertainties that are associated with them by nature.

If we accept the presence of judges, lawyers and procedural rights and obligations, in particular the right of action and the rights of defence, for many it would be only in order to respect the Rule of Law, a tribute that must be paid, a dose of inefficiency within efficiency, thus pitting the disciplines against each other, in this case Law on the one hand and Economics and Management on the other. More often than not, we leave it at that, either to admit it and strike a balance, or to regret it and wait to see which logic will prevail, between procedural rights and obligations on the one hand and compliance rights and obligations on the other...

On the contrary, we must reject this logic of communicating vessels.

In fact, Compliance Law is an extension of Regulatory Law, which it extends beyond sectors and borders, and whose normativity is anchored in the Compliance Monumental Goals set by political and public Authorities, which aim to ensure that in the future systems do not collapse, or even improve so that the human beings who depend on them are not crushed by them but, on the contrary, benefit from them.

This gives rise to "systemic compliance litigation", which gives rise to specific procedural principles. First of all, it is important to clarify what a "systemic case" is, a concept that I proposed in 2021, and to which the cases that are now being brought before the courts correspond. The specific nature of these emerging systemic compliance disputes, which are objective disputes, similar to administrative disputes, which fully justifies the presence of the public prosecutor and raises the question of whether there would be a 'natural judge' for these systemic compliance disputes, have major procedural consequences, particularly on procedural rights and obligations: in particular the right to be a party to the proceedings, even if you are a party to the dispute, which is the case for the stakeholders.

The result is a new alliance between the Compliance Obligation and General Procedural Law, which gives rise to compliance obligations of a procedural nature within Compliance Law itself. It is no longer necessary to divide Ex Ante and Ex Post, but to borrow compliance principles and insert them into jurisdictional procedures, as envisaged by the Haut Conseiller François Ancel (moving from Ex Ante to Ex Post), while it is necessary to insert procedural principles into compliance obligations within companies (moving from Ex Post to Ex Ante), as shown in the book Compliance Jurisdictionalisation. This is particularly illustrated in relation to the Obligation of Vigilance, which is the spearhead of the Compliance Obligation. 

This is particularly relevant in relation to three procedural obligations which must now structure the compliance obligations in the behaviour of the companies and parties concerned, even independently of any jurisdictional proceedings, since the court may be called upon to verify their fulfillment on both sides and to promote them, which gives him/her an ex ante role: the obligation to discuss (adversarial principle), the obligation to provide information (evidentiary system) and the obligation to demonstrate (principle of the motivation).

This alliance thus changes both Compliance Law and Procedural Law, since it changes the role of the judge. But this question of the judge's office is the subject of a separate contribution for this book.

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April 18, 2024

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► Full referenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "L’usage des puissances privées par le droit de la compliance pour servir les droits de l’homme" (Use of private companies by Compliance Law to serve Human Rights) in J. Andriantsimbazovina (dir.), Puissances privées et droits de l'Homme. Essai d'analyse juridique, Mare Martin,  coll. "Horizons européens", 2024, to be published

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🚧read the  Bilingual Working Paper on which this article is based, with more technical developments, references and hypertext links

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► English Summary of this article: Following the legal tradition, Law creates a link between power with a legitimate source, the State, public power being its prerogative, while private companies exercise their power only in the shadow of this public power exercised ex ante.  The triviality of Economic Law, of which Competition Law is at the heart, consisting of the activity of companies that use their power on markets, relegates the action of the State to the rank of an exception, admissible if the State, which claims to exercise this contrary power, justifies it.  The distribution of roles is thus reversed, in that the places are exchanged, but the model of opposition is shared. This model of opposition exhausts the forces of the organisations, which are relegated to being the exception. However, if we want to achieve great ambitions, for example to give concrete reality to human rights beyond the legal system within which the public authorities exercise their normative powers, we must rely on a new branch of Law, remarkable for its pragmatism and the scope of the ambitions, including humanist ambitions, that it embodies: Compliance Law.

Compliance Law is thus the branch of Law which makes the concern for others, concretised by human rights, borne by the entities in a position to satisfy it, that is to say the systemic entities, of which the large companies are the direct subjects of law (I). The result is a new division between Public Authorities, legitimate to formulate the Monumental Goal of protecting human beings, and private organisations, which adjust to this according to the type of human rights and the means put in place to preserve them. Corporations are sought after because they are powerful, in that they are in a position to make human rights a reality, in their indifference to territory, in the centralisation of Information, technologies and economic, human, and financial means. This alliance is essential to ensure that the system does not lead to a transfer of political choices from Public Authorities to private companies; this alliance leads to systemic efficiency. The result is a new definition of sovereignty as we see it taking shape in the digital space, which is not a particular sector since it is the world that has been digitalised, the climate issue justifying the same new distribution of roles (II). 

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April 4, 2024

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Le rôle du juge dans le déploiement du droit de la régulation par le droit de la compliance" ("Synthesis: The role of the Judge in the deployment of Regulatory Law through Compliance Law"), Synthesis in Conseil d'État (French Council of State) and Cour de cassation (French Court of cassation), De la régulation à la compliance : quel rôle pour le juge ? Regards croisés du Conseil d'Etat et de la Cour de cassation - Colloque du 2 juin 2023, La Documentation française, "Droits et Débats" Serie, 2024, pp.

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🎥this article follows the closing speech of the biannual symposium organised by the Council of State and the Court of cassation, which in 2023 was entitled De la régulation à la compliance : quel rôle pour le juge ? (From Regulation to Compliance, what role for the judge ?)

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper which is the basis of this article, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks

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 Presentation of this concluding article: It is remarkable to note the unity of conception and practice between professionals who tend to work in administrative jurisdictions and professionals who tend to work in judicial jurisdictions: they all note, in similar terms, an essential movement: what Regulatory Law is, how it has been transformed into Compliance Law, and how in one and even more so in the other the Judge is at the centre of it.

Judges, as well as Regulators and European officials, explain this and use different examples to illustrate the far-reaching changes it brings to the Law and to the companies responsible for increasing the systemic effectiveness of the rules through the practice and dissemination of a Culture of Compliance.

The role of the judge participating in this Ex Ante transformation is renewed, whether he/she is a judge of Public Law or a judge of Private Law, in a greater unity of the legal system.

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► English Summary of this article: The tug-of-war between 'Compliance' and 'conformity', which is exhausting us, obscures what is essential, i.e. the great novelty of a branch of law that assumes a humanist vision expressing the ambition to shape the future so that it is not catastrophic (preventing systems from collapsing), or even better (protecting human beings in these systems).

The article begins by describing the emergence of Compliance Law, as an extension of Regulatory Law and going beyond it. This new branch of law takes account of our new world, brings its benefits and seeks to counter these systemic dangers so that human beings could be their beneficiaries and are not crushed by them. This branch of Ex Ante Law is therefore political, often supported by public Authorities, such as Regulatory Authorities, but today it goes beyond sectors, as shown by its cutting edge, the Obligation of Vigilance.

The "Monumental Goals" in which Compliance Law is normatively anchored imply a teleological interpretation, leading to an "empowerment" of the crucial operators, not only States but also companies, responsible for the effectiveness of the many new Compliance Tools.

The article goes on to show that Judges are increasingly central to Compliance Law. Lawsuits are designed to make companies more accountable. In this transformation, the role of the judge is also to remain the guardian of the Rule of Law, both in the protection of the rights of the defence and in the protection of secrets. Efficiency is not what defines Compliance, which should not be reduced to a pure and simple method of efficiency, which would lead to being an instrument of dictatorship. This is why the principle of Proportionality is essential in the judge's review of the requirements arising from this so powerful branch of Law. 

The courts are thus faced with a new type of dispute, of a systemic nature, in their own area, which must not be distorted: the Area of Justice.

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📝read article (in French)

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Updated: March 15, 2024 (Initial publication: Dec. 15, 2023)

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, Duty of vigilance: the way forward, Working Paper, 2023.

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🎤 This working paper has been drawn up to serve as a basis for the conclusions of the colloquium Le devoir de vigilance: l'âge de la maturité? ("The duty of vigilance: the age of maturity?") organised by the University of Montpellier on 25 May 2023.

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📝 Updated and developed, it serves as the basis for the article that concludes the book Le devoir de vigilance des entreprises : l'âge de la maturité? ("The duty of vigilance: the age of maturity?"), Editions Bruylant, 2024.

 

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 Working Paper summary: In 2017 in France the so-called Vigilance law expressed great ambition. So did the draft directive. But in 2024 the European institutions moderated this ambition by refusing to increase either the type of companies subject and the constraints to which the duty of vigilance is associated. The directive has essentially halted what was for some the "march of progress". Does the ambition no longer exist? Does the future lie in an extension of the philosophy of the duty of vigilance, i.e. companies that should always be more concerned about others? This would undoubtedly be reaching the "age of maturity", where others see the age of madness, because it would be a contradiction in terms to ask a company to be concerned about anything other than its own development.

It is therefore appropriate to consider this very hypothesis of an "age of maturity" as being an ambition maintained despite a European directive which, in its adopted version, is weakened and while the oppositions are intact (I). First of all, it must be admitted that the notion of "maturity" most often conceals a value judgment when applied to a legal concept (I.A.) and that this is blatantly obvious with regard to the duty of vigilance, which is considered by some and by nature by some as a good and by others as an evil (I.B).

In order not to remain in what appears to be trench warfare, we must not get too bogged down in the reference French legislation of 2017 and what appears to be a European stutter in 2024, arguing so loudly that we can hear them reasoning in print, by paying attention to less visible and now more promising avenues of progress (II). In fact, the duty of vigilance can progress simply by the passage of time (II.A), by a better definition of the vocabulary (II.B), by the consolidation of the principles of Responsibility and Dialogue (II.C), by the uniqueness of the jurisdictional route (II.D).

This last perspective of the progress that will be made possible in France by the uniqueness of the judicial route leads to a final avenue of progress. By their very nature, laws are jolts, all the more violent for being disputed. At the moment, if we want to make progress, these two other sources - the contract and the judge - must be favoured (III). The European directive is rightly concerned with access to the courts and takes a measured view of the effectiveness of contracts as a means of making the duty of vigilance effective, with the courts having to ensure that the contract does not destroy the spirit of the system. This is what the law already organises about the relationship between the contract, the judge and the duty of compliance (III.A). What is new in Europe in 2024 is the introduction of a Supervisor (III.B). Here again, vigilance is the "cutting edge" of Compliance Law, as it is an extension of Regulatory Law. 

The result is that, through interpretation and the handling of principles, and to formulate a more general conclusion, it is the judge who holds and will hold the balance of the duty of vigilance.

 

 

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🔓read the Working Paper below⤵️

March 14, 2024

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Compliance et conformité : les distinguer pour les articuler" ("Compliance and conformity: distinguish them in order to articulate them"), D. 2024, chron., pp. 497-499

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📝read the article (in French)

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper which is the basis of this article, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks

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► English Summary of the article: "Compliance" and "conformité" ("conformity") are sometimes presented as synonyms, with "conformité" simply being the translation of "compliance". On the contrary, they are two opposing concepts. "Conformity" refers to the obligation to obey all applicable regulations, regardless of their content. A godsend for the regulator... Compliance Law is quite different! Political and public authorities set systemic 'Monumental Goals' to ensure that systems do not collapse tomorrow, or even improve, and then entrust large companies with the task of activating the means to achieve these goals. Conformity then resumes its place in Compliance Law: being one of its tools.

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📚read the other articles published in this chronique of Compliance Law published in the Recueil Dalloz

 

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Feb. 29, 2024

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► Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Connaitre les pratiques pour redessiner les frontières et accroître les points de contact entre Compliance et droits de la défense dans l’enquête interne, la CJIP et la CRPC (lignes de force de l'ouvrage)" ("Understanding practices to redraw the boundaries and increase the points of contact between Compliance and the rights of the defense in internal investigation, Judicial Public Interest Agreement and French guilty plea procedure (Main Aspects of the Book)."), in M.-A. Frison-Roche et M. Boissavy (ed.), Compliance et droits de la défense. Enquête interne – CJIP – CRPCJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance", to be published.

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📝read the article (in French)

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📝 read also the presentation of the other contribution of Marie-Anne Frison-Roche in this book: "Circuler dans le temps pour mettre en phase Compliance et droits de la défense"

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📕read a general presentation of the book, Compliance et droits de la défense. Enquête interne – CJIP – CRPC, in which this article is published

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Feb. 29, 2024

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 Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche & M. Boissavy (eds.), Compliance et droits de la défense. Enquête interne – CJIP – CRPC (Compliance and rights of the defence. Internal investigation – French Judicial Public Interest Agreement – French guilty plea procedure)Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, "Régulations & Compliance" Serie, 2024, 362 p.

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► General presentation of the book:  We do not have an overall view of the relationship between Compliance and the rights of the defence in the continuum of internal investigations and DPA, or in the French legal system the convention judiciaire d'intérêt public (CJIP) and the comparution immédiate avec reconnaissance de culpabilité (CRPC), in particular because the texts, whether hard law or soft law, decisions and academic analyses segment them, making it difficult to build a pertinent appreciation of each one. This is made all the more difficult by the fact that we know little about how each of them is applied in practice, both within each of them and in relation to each other.  As a result, it is difficult to express overall satisfaction, or total rejection, or to suggest some specific reforms and to precise on what points, to identify the appropriate source of these improvements, legislation, case law, professions, or spontaneous ways of doing. The first ambition of this book is therefore to restore an overall vision, because this is the vision of practice. If shortcomings are found to exist, then they can be more easily denounced.

However, some of the situations described may be described as flawed, or even dramatic, by some, while others may consider that they should be approved as they stand. This applies, for example, to the question of whether or not the investigation report should be secret from the prosecuting authority, which may propose a DPA (or in the French legal system a CJIP), whether or not this CJIP should be extended to individuals, whether or not a lawyer should be present from the internal investigation stage onwards, whether or not the lawyer should support the interests of the company he/she is investigating and continue to do so before the regulator or the prosecutor, whether or not the investigation is delegated from the public authorities to the company, whether or not the lawyer-investigator and then the lawyer-defendant are both lawyers, whether or not the victims are represented in the the CIPC process, etc. Depending on what one thinks the relation between Compliance and due process should be in principle and in practice, one expresses a more or less approving or severe judgement on the state of the texts, the soft law nature of most of them making the exercise complicated, and then if there is a gap between them and what one thinks should be the right standard, one asserts that in practice things happen differently from what the texts say, or one considers that the texts should be changed. From point to point, a veritable kaleidoscope emerges in this book.

Indeed, the result is a series of contributions that sometimes clash with one another, with a sort of contradictionary principle creeping into the very structure of this book, thus establishing the readesr as a sort of judges themselves , that character who is so absent. He/she will be able to do so, since the book lists texts, describes practices and gives an illustration of everything that can be thought of, in visions that are sometimes analytical and sometimes global, with proposals of reforms of texts, jurisprudence or conduct.

The aim of the book is to enable readers to form their own opinions and to take part in what is undoubtedly being strongly debated today: the confrontation between Compliance and rights of the defence.

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 Summary of the book: The rights of the defence are one of the pillars of our Rule of Law. On the face of it, compliance techniques are not concerned with this under the pretext of efficiency. This would be particularly true in a trilogy that unfolds over time: internal investigation, convention judiciaire d'intérêt public - CJIP (French Judicial Public Interest Agreement) and comparution sur reconnaissance préalable de culpabilité - CRPC (French guilty plea procedure).

However, because Compliance Law is also the expression of the Rule of Law, in that its ambition is to detect and prevent systemic risks in order to protect present and future human beings, we must go beyond this opposition and articulate Compliance and rights of the defence.

The Monumental Goals of Compliance, which justify its power, for example to obtain information, and the fundamental rights of the defence, which for example impose the presumption of innocence, must be adjusted to each other; by interpreting texts, or even adopting new ones.

The book analyses each of these three techniques, in particular the still largely unregulated internal investigation, and sheds light on them in relation to each other, in order to formulate proposals.

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🏗️General construction of the book: The book opens with an overview divided into three sections. The first Title compares the challenges of the internal investigation with the rights of the defence. The second Title compares the issues at stake in the convention judiciaire d'intérêt public - CJIP (French Judicial Public Interest Agreement) and the comparution sur reconnaissance préalable de culpabilité - CRPC (French guilty plea procedure) with these same rights of the defence.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

COMPLIANCE ET DROITS DE LA DÉFENSE : VISION D'ENSEMBLE

(COMPLIANCE AND RIGHTS OF THE DEFENCE : OVERVIEW)

Section 1 ♦️ Connaître les pratiques pour redessiner les frontières et accroître les points de contact entre Compliance et droits de la défense dans l’enquête interne, la CJIP et la CRPC. Lignes de force de l'ouvrage Compliance et droits de la défense (Understanding practices to redraw the boundaries and increase the points of contact between Compliance and the rights of the defense in internal investigation, French Judicial Public Interest Agreement and French guilty plea procedure. Main Aspects of the Book Compliance and rights of the defence), by🕴️Marie-Anne Frison-Roche  

Section 2 ♦️  Compliance et droits de la défense : toujours pour le respect des droits humains (Compliance and rights of the defence: always for the respect of human rights), by🕴️Matthieu Boissavy

Section 3 ♦️ Circuler dans le temps pour mettre en phase Compliance et droits de la défense (Moving through Time to align Compliance and rights of the defence)by🕴️Marie-Anne Frison-Roche

 

TITRE I. 

LES ENJEUX PROCÉDURAUX DE L'ENQUETE INTERNE CONFRONTÉE AUX DROITS DE LA DÉFENSE

(TITLE I. 

PROCEDURAL CHALLENGES OF THE INTERNAL INVESTIGATION

IN RELATION TO THE RIGHTS OF THE DEFENCE)

 

CHAPITRE I : VISION GÉNÉRALE DES DROITS DE LA DÉFENSE DANS L'ENQUÊTE INTERNE 

(CHAPTER I: OVERVIEW OF THE RIGHTS OF THE DEFENCE IN INTERNAL INVESTIGATION)

Section 1 ♦️ Approche doctrinale de l’enquête interne et de l’enquête pénale privée (Doctrinal approach to internal investigation and private criminal investigation), by 🕴️Benjamin Fiorini

Section 2 ♦️ Regard critique : La place des droits de la défense dans l'enquête interne selon le guide AFA/PNF (A critical look: The place of the rights of the defence in the internal investigation according to the AFA/PNF Guide), by 🕴️Margaux Durand-Poincloux, 🕴️David Apelbaum and 🕴️Paola Sardi-Antasan

Section 3 ♦️ Les conditions de réussite de l'enquête interne dans les rapports entre le Parquet national financier et l’entreprise mise en cause – l’enquête interne au soutien de la défense de l’entreprise (The conditions for a successful internal investigation in the relationship between the French Financial Public Prosecutor's Office and the accused company - the internal investigation in support of the company's defence), by🕴️Jean-François Bohnert

 

CHAPITRE II : LES DROITS DE LA DÉFENSE À CHAQUE ÉTAPE DE L'ENQUÊTE INTERNE

(CHAPTER II: THE RIGHTS OF THE DEFENCE AT EACH STAGE OF THE INTERNAL INVESTIGATION)

 

Section 1 ♦️ La réception des alertes par l'avocat (Reception of alerts by the lawyer), by🕴️Maria Lancri

Section 2 ♦️ Collecte et traitement des informations dans les enquêtes internes à l'ère numérique : processus et enjeux (Collecting and processing information for internal investigations in the digital age: processes and challenges)by🕴️Uriel Goldberg

Section 3 ♦️ L’apport de la psychologie pour l'effectivité des droits de la défense dans l'enquête interne pour harcèlement au travail (The contribution of psychology to the effectiveness of the rights of the defence in internal investigation for harassment in the workplace)by🕴️Nathalie Leroy & 🕴️Danièle Zucker

Section 4 ♦️ Le respect des droits de la défense lors des auditions des enquêtes internes : un gage d’efficacité (Respecting the rights of the defence during hearings in internal investigations: a guarantee of efficacy)by 🕴️Emmanuel Daoud & 🕴️Ghita Khalid Rouissi

Section 5 ♦️ L’enquête interne au cœur des enjeux de conformité et de justice négociée : analyse de la position de l'AFA et du PNF (The internal investigation at the heart of conformity and negotiated justice issues: analysis of the position of the AFA and the PNF)by🕴️Éric Russo

Section 6 ♦️ Le rapport d’enquête interne à l’épreuve des droits de la défense (The internal investigation report put to the test of defence rights), by🕴️Samuel Sauphanor

 

CHAPITRE III : LA SPÉCIFICITÉ DES ENQUÊTES INTERNES DANS LES ENTREPRISES INTERNATIONALES ET LA PLACE DES DROITS DE LA DÉFENSE

(CHAPTER III : SPECIFICITY OF INTERNAL INVESTIGATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES AND THE PLACE OF THE RIGHTS OF THE DEFENCE)

Section 1 ♦️ La spécificité des enquêtes internes pratiquées par les groupes internationaux (Specificity of internal investigations carried out by international groups)by 🕴️Olivier Catherine

Section 2 ♦️ Garantir la valeur probatoire d’un rapport dans le cadre d’une enquête interne opérée dans une entreprise internationale (Guaranteeing the evidential value of a report in an internal investigation carried out in an international company)by 🕴️Monique Figueiredo

Section 3 ♦️ La responsabilité de l'entreprise dans la conception et la menée de l'enquête interne (The company's responsibility in designing and conducting an internal investigation)by 🕴️Lydia Meziani

Section 4 ♦️ Enquêtes internes, enquêtes pénales et droits de la défense : que nous disent les jurisprudences américaine et anglaise (l’affaire Connolly et l’affaire ENRC) ? (Internal investigations, criminal investigations and rights of the defence: what do the US and UK case law tell us (the Connolly case and the ENRC case)?)by 🕴️Victoire Chatelin

 

CHAPITRE IV : LE RÔLE SINGULIER DE L'AVOCAT DANS L'ENQUÊTE INTERNE

(CHAPTER IV: THE SPECIAL ROLE OF THE LAWYER IN THE INTERNAL INVESTIGATION)

Section 1 ♦️ La méthodologie propre à l'avocat enquêteur (The investigating lawyer's own methodology)by 🕴️William Feugère

Section 2 ♦️ L'enquête interne façonnée par la déontologie de l'avocat (The internal investigation shaped by the lawyer's deontology)by 🕴️Stéphane De Navacelle, 🕴️Julie Zorrila and 🕴️Laura Ragazzi

Section 3 ♦️ Préserver le secret professionnel de l'avocat dans l'enquête interne et son résultat (Preserving the lawyer's professional secrecy in the internal investigation and its outcome)by 🕴️Bénédicte Graulle & 🕴️Yanis Rahim

Section 4 ♦️ L’avocat-enquêteur en droit du travail : un janséniste au milieu du Far West (The lawyer-investigator in employment law: a Jansenist in the Wild West)by 🕴️Richard Doudet

Section 5 ♦️ La défense des personnes physiques dans les enquêtes internes (Defending individuals in internal investigations)by 🕴️Dorothée Hever

 

 

TITRE II.

LES ENJEUX PROCÉDURAUX DE LA CJIP ET DE LA CRPC

CONFRONTÉES AUX DROITS DE LA DÉFENSE

(TITLE II.

PROCEDURAL CHALLENGES OF THE FRENCH JUDICIAL PUBLIC INTEREST AGREEMENT

AND THE FRENCH GUILTY PLEA PROCEDURE 

IN RELATION TO THE RIGHTS OF THE DEFENCE)

 

CHAPITRE I : VISION GÉNÉRALE DES DROITS DE LA DÉFENSE DANS LA CJIP ET LA CRPC

(CHAPTER I: OVERVIEW OF THE RIGHTS OF THE DEFENCE IN THE FRENCH JUDICIAL PUBLIC INTEREST AGREEMENT AND THE FRENCH GUILTY PLEA PROCEDURE)

Section 1 ♦️ Théorie et pratique de la négociation dans la justice pénale (Theory and practice of negotiation in criminal justice)by 🕴️Sarah-Marie Cabon

Section 2 ♦️ La lutte anti-corruption : l’emprunt au modèle américain et à ses récentes évolutions (The fight against corruption: borrowing from the American model and its recent developments)by 🕴️Stephen L. Dreyfuss

Section 3 ♦️ Justice pénale négociée : avantages présents, risques à venir (Negotiated criminal justice: curent benefits, future risks)by 🕴️Alexis Bavitot

 

CHAPITRE II : FORMES ACTIVES DES DROITS DE LA DÉFENSE, LES DIALOGUES À L'OEUVRE OU À PARFAIRE DANS LA CJIP ET LA CRPC

(CHAPTER II: ACTIVE FORMS OF THE RIGHTS OF THE DEFENCE, DIALOGUES AT WORK OR TO BE PERFECTED IN THE FRENCH JUDICIAL PUBLIC INTEREST AGREEMENT AND THE FRENCH GUILTY PLEA PROCEDURE)

Section 1 ♦️ Combinaison des CRPC et des CJIP : le cas particulier des affaires de fraude fiscale (Combination of the French guilty plea procedure and the French Judicial Public Interest Agreement: the special issue of tax fraud cases)by 🕴️Marion David

Section 2 ♦️ Pour une justice pénale négociée plus équitable (For a fairer negotiated criminal justice), by🕴️Astrid Mignon Colombet

Section 3 ♦️ Les impacts, sur les droits de la défense, des disparités de la justice pénale négociée dans l’Union européenne (The impact on the rights of the defence of the disparities in negotiated criminal justice in the European Union)by 🕴️Emmanuel Moyne

Section 4 ♦️ L'évolution des rapports entre avocats et autorités de poursuites depuis l'introduction de la CJIP (Developments in relations between lawyers and prosecuting authorities since the introduction of the French Judicial Public Interest Agreement), by 🕴️Thomas Baudesson

 

CHAPITRE III : LE RÔLE SINGULIER DE L'AVOCAT DANS LA CJIP ET LA CRPC 

(CHAPTER III: THE SINGULAR ROLE OF THE LAWYER IN THE FRENCH JUDICIAL PUBLIC INTEREST AGREEMENT AND THE FRENCH GUILTY PLEA PROCEDURE)

Section 1 ♦️ Quand se justifie et quand s'arrête la collaboration ? À propos de la CJIP (When is collaboration justified and when does it end? About the French Judicial Public Interest Agreement), by 🕴️Philippe Goossens

Section 2 ♦️ Le dialogue de l’avocat et de son client, chef d’entreprise, face à la proposition d’une CRPC et d’une CJIP (The dialogue between the lawyer and his client, a company director, faced with the proposal of a French guilty plea procedure or a French Judicial Public Interest Agreement), by 🕴️François Saint-Pierre

Section 3 ♦️ Le dilemme de l'avocat pénaliste face à la CRPC (The criminal lawyer's dilemma when faced with the French guilty plea procedure), by 🕴️Jean Boudot

Section 5 ♦️ Défendre les intérêts des victimes dans la justice pénale économique négociée (Defending victims' interests in negotiated economic criminal justice)by 🕴️Jérôme Karsenti

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Feb. 28, 2024

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche "Circuler dans le temps pour mettre en phase Compliance et droits de la défense ("Moving through Time to align Compliance with the rights of the defence")", in M.-A. Frison-Roche et M. Boissavy (dir.), Compliance et droits de la défense. Enquête interne – CJIP – CRPCJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Dalloz, coll. "Régulations & Compliance",  to be published.

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📝read the article (in French)

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper on which this article is based, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks

____

📕read the general presentation of the book, Compliance et droits de la défense. Enquête interne – CJIP – CRPC, in which this article is published (in French)

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📝read also the presentation of the other article published par Marie-Anne Frison-Roche in this book : "Connaitre les pratiques pour redessiner les frontières et accroître les points de contact entre Compliance et droits de la défense dans l’enquête interne, la CJIP et la CRPC" (Understanding practices to redraw the boundaries and increase the points of contact between Compliance and the rights of the defense in Internal Investigation, Judicial Public Interest Agreement and French guilty plea procedure)

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 English Summary of this article: the subject of Compliance & rights of the defence is difficult to pin down because it often gives rise to totally opposing presentations, which express the initial confrontation between Compliance and rights of the defence, which seems irreducible. This initial confrontation must be acknowledged, and this is even more necessary to prevent it from becoming definitive(I)

But in a society governed by the Rule of Law, the rights of the defence are central, and the hierarchy of norms dictates that they remain the privilege of all those who risk being punished in the future. Admittedly, if we look at the course of events in a linear way, the Compliance mechanisms come in Ex Ante, whereas the rights of the defence would only be activated when the repressive procedures would later come to bear on the moral or natural person. The question would therefore not even arise, or not in a central way. But this reasoning creates a false compatibility between Compliance and the rights of the defence (II.

Indeed, it is the perspective of punishment in the future that forms the basis for the attribution of rights of the defence in the present. This consideration of the future not only allows but obliges the Law to "move in time", to always think in advance about what might happen tomorrow: this is how we must think about the Compliance methods of Internal Investigation, the DPA (or in the French legal system the Convention judiciaire d'intérêt public and the French Guilty plea procedure (CRPC) (III). As soon as these Compliance Tools are being used in practice, at the time they are being used, we must already think about how their results will be used, results which they have often been used for, because the Internal Investigation is a formidable piece of Evidence for obtaining a conviction and/or a DPA, etc. : therefore, the rights of the defence must shift over time, from the future to the present of the Information collect.

Two ambiguities that affect Compliance Law itself, ambiguities which the rights of the defence help to clarify, now appear more clearly.  The first concerns the place occupied by the consent of the person who could have been protected by the rights of defence but //who exercises his/her will to renounce them (IV). Consent, in relation to the will of which it is the expression, is also linked with the future and allows Compliance once again to take precedence over the prerogatives of the individual who chooses not to benefit from it. The omnipresence of 'consent' in Compliance is enlightening here... The second ambiguity concerns the place of secrecy (V). Secrecy seems to be the prerogative of the rights of the defence. But it can also be an effective Compliance Tool when Confidentiality enables the company to detect and prevent breaches. It may even constitute the very Monumental Goal of Compliance Law. This happens when the Goal of Compliance Law, in which legal normativity is placed, becomes the protection of the individual, as is the case for personal information. That guides the European Judge, in line with the humanism that underpins European Compliance Law, in finding the right balance, this protection and effectiveness, depending on whether the information must be given or must be not.

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Feb. 19, 2024

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____

 Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, Compliance and conformity: distinguishing them to articulate them, Working Paper, February 2024.

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📝 this working paper was drawn up to serve as a basis for the article published in French in the Chronique MAFR -  Compliance Law, published in the Recueil Dalloz.  

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 Summary of this Working Paper: The words "conformité" and "compliance" are sometimes used interchangeably, presenting "conformité" as the translation into good legal French vocabulary of "compliance", which would come from the American system. This is not true, however, because each of these terms refers to two distinct and even opposing concepts. 

"conformity"' would require companies to show that they are actively obeying all the 'regulations' applicable to them, regardless of their content. "Compliance Law" is a new substantial branch of Law that derives its normativity from the "Monumental Goals" targeted by the political and public authorities: these monumental goals are intended to ensure that systems do not collapse in the future (Negative Monumental Goals), or even improve (Positive Monumental Goals). The systems concerned are banking, finance, energy, health, transport, digital and climate systems. The scope of Compliance Law is therefore both much more limited and more ambitious.

Distinguishing between the two allows us to put conformity back where it belongs, as a tool of Compliance Law. As such, conformity justifies the collation and correlation of information, with the algorithmic system playing a major role in this. On the other hand, the human concern that underpins Compliance Law justifies making training and the actions of in-house lawyers, attorneys and judges, central to it. The evidentiary system of Compliance that is currently being developed is based on evidentiary techniques rooted on the one hand in the tool of conformity and on the other in the culture of Compliance, which can be articulated as soon as they are no longer confused.

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🔓read the working paper below⤵️

 

 

Jan. 26, 2024

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche (ed.), Compliance JurisdictionalisationJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, coll. "Compliance & Regulation", 2024, 464 p.

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 General presentation of the book: Sanctions, controls, appeals, deals: judges and lawyers are everywhere in the Compliance mechanisms, creating unprecedented situations, sometimes without a solution yet available.  Even though Compliance was designed to avoid the judge and produce security by avoiding conflict. This jurisdictionalisation is therefore new. Forcing companies to prosecute and judge, a constrained role, perhaps against their nature. Leading to the adaptation of major procedural principles, with difficulty. Confronting arbitration with new perspectives. Putting the judge at heart, in mechanisms designed so that he is not there. How in practice to organize these opposites and anticipate the solutions? This is the challenge taken up by this book.

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► Summary of the book: There have always been Judges and Lawyers in Compliance Law, in particular because this branch of Law is an extension of Regulatory Law in which they have a core place. This results from the fact that the decisions taken in respect of Compliance are contestable in Court, including Arbitration, those issued by the Company, such as those of States or Authorities, the Judge in turn becoming what Compliance Law is effective.

The novelty lies more in the phenomenon of "jurisdictionalisation", that is to say that the trial model penetrates all Compliance Law, and not only the Ex Post part that it includes. Moreover, it seems that this jurisdictionalisation influences the non-legal dimension of Compliance. This movement has effects that must be measured and causes that must be understood. Advantages and disadvantages that must be balanced. If only to form an opinion vis-à-vis Companies that have become Prosecutors and Judges of themselves and others ...: encourage this "Jurisdictionalisation of Compliance", fight it, perhaps influence it? In any case, understand it!

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🏗️General construction of the book:The book opens with a double Introduction. The first, which is freely accessible, consists of a summary of the book, while the second, which is substantial, deals with the need to bring the Judge and the Lawyer into line if Compliance Law is to be the hallmark of States governed by the Rule of Law.

The first Chapter is devoted to what is specific to Compliance Law: the transformation of companies into Prosecutors and Judges of themselves, and even of others. The second Chapter examines the interference between General Procedural Law and Compliance techniques. The third Chapter measures the influence of the reasoning and requirements of Compliance Law in methods of dispute resolution where it has not, with a few exceptions, been present, but where it has a great future: arbitration. Because trials and judgements are indissociable, because legal techniques and the Rule of Law must not be dissociated, and because Compliance techniques could paradoxically be the weapon used to dissociate them, because the power to judge and the procedures surrounding it must not be dissociated, because Compliance and the Rule of Law must therefore be conceived and practised together, the rise in power of one being a sign of the rise in power of the other, and not the price of the weakening of the Rule of Law, the fourth Chapter deals with the role of the Judge in Compliance.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

DOUBLE INTRODUCTION

🕴️​M.-A. Frison-Roche, 📝Main Aspects of the book Compliance Jurisdictionalisation

🕴️​M.-A. Frison-Roche, 📝Reinforce the Judge and the Lawyer to impose Compliance Law as a characteristic of the Rule of Law 

 

I. THE COMPANY ESTABLISHED PROSECUTOR AND JUDGE OF ITSELF BY COMPLIANCE LAW

🕴️M.-A. Frison-Roche, 📝The "Judge-Judged". Articulating Words and Things in the face of Conflicts of Interest

🕴️C. Granier, 📝Reflections on the existence of companies’ jurisprudence through Compliance matters

🕴️L.-M. Augagneur, 📝The jurisdictionalisation of reputation by platforms

🕴️A. Bruneau, 📝The compagny judges itself: the Compliance function in the bank

🕴️J.-M. Coulon, 📝Compliance Law in the construction industry and the contradictions, impossibilities and. deadlocks that companies face

🕴️Ch. Lapp, 📝Compliance in companies: the statues of process

🕴️J. Heymann, 📝The Legal Nature of the Facebook "Supreme Court"

🕴️D. Latour, 📝Internal investigations within companies

🕴️A. Bavitot, 📝Shaping the company through negotiated Criminal Justice Agreements. French perspective

🕴️S. Merabet, 📝Vigilance, being a judge and not judge

 

II. PROCEDURAL LAW IN COMPLIANCE LAW

🕴️​N. Cayrol, 📝Procedural Principles in Compliance Law

🕴️F. Ancel, 📝Compliance Law, a new guiding principle for the Trial?

🕴️B. Sillaman, 📝Taking the Compliance U.S. Procedural Experience globally

🕴️A. Linden, 📝Motivation and publicity of the decisions of the Restricted formation of the French Personal Data Protection Authority (Commission nationale de l'informatique et des libertés - CNIL) in a compliance perspective

🕴️S. Scemla, & 🕴️D. Paillot, 📝The difficulty for Compliance Enforcement Authorities to comprehend the Rights of the Defence in compliance matters

🕴️M.-A. Frison-Roche, 📝Adjusting General Procedural Law to Compliance Law by the nature of things

 

III. ARTICULATION BETWEEN COMPLIANCE LAW AND INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION

🕴️J.-B. Racine, 📝Compliance and arbitration. An attempt at problematisation

🕴️E. Silva-Romero & 🕴️R. Legru, 📝What place is there for compliance in investment arbitration?

🕴️​M. Audit, 📝The arbitrator's position on compliance

🕴️E. Kleiman, 📝The objectives of compliance confronted with the actors of arbitration

 

IV. THE JUDGE IN COMPLIANCE LAW

🕴️M.-A. Frison-Roche, 📝The Judge, the Compliance Obligation and the Company. The Compliance Evidence System

🕴️J. Morel-Maroger, 📝The application of compliance standards by European Union judges 

🕴️S. Schiller, 📝A single judge in the event of an international breach of compliance obligations?

🕴️O. Douvreleur, 📝Compliance and Judge of the Law

🕴️F. Raynaud, 📝The Administrative Judge and Compliance

🕴️E. Wennerström, 📝Some Reflections on Compliance and the European Court of Human Rights

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Dec. 15, 2023

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 Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Adjusting General Procedural Law to Compliance Law by the nature of things", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (ed.), Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, coll. "Compliance & Regulation", to be published. 

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📝read the article

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper which is the basis of this article, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks

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📘read a general presentation of the book, Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, in which this article is published

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The principal elements of this articles had been presented during the scientific manifestation held on September 23, 2021, at Dauphine University in Paris, coorganised by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and the Institute Droit Dauphine. 

In the book this article is placed in the chapter II about the General Procedural Law in the Compliance Law.  

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 Summary of the article (done by the Journal of regulation & Compliance - JoRC): General Procedural law is an invention, essentially due to professor Motulsky, going well beyond the gain that one always has in comparing types of procedures with each other. As he asserted, there is Natural Law in General Procedural Law, in that as soon as there is the Rule of Law Principle there cannot be, whatever the "procedure", even the "process" such and such way of doing things: for example, to decide, to seize the one who decides, to listen before deciding, to contest the one who has decided.

General Procedural Law therefore depends on the nature of things. However, Compliance Law organizes things in a new way. Therefore, both the simple and iron principles of General Procedural Law creep in where we do not expect them at first sight, because there is no judge, this character around whom ordinary procedures fit together. The principles of General Procedural Law are essential in companies. Even if the regulations do not breathe a word about it, it is up to the Judges, in particular the Supreme Courts, to recognize this nature of things because on this effect of nature that  General Procedural Law is built: when compliance mechanisms oblige companies to strike, General Procedural law must oblige, even in the silence of the texts, to arm those who can be hit, even stand up against devices that would set aside too much these defenses that are easily considered contrary to efficiency (I).

But because it is a question of making room for this nature of the things of which the Rule of Law Principle entrusts the custody to the Judge and the Lawyer, the General Procedural Law must also adjust itself to what the extraordinary new branch of Law Compliance Law is. Indeed, Compliance Law is extraordinary in that it expresses the political pretention to act now so that the future will not be catastrophic, by detecting and preventing the realization of systemic risks, or even that it is better, by building effective equality or real concern for others. Because it is the Monumental Goals that defines this new branch of Law, a disputed systemic issue, possibly disputed by several parties before a judge, the procedural principles used by the court must be broadened considerably: they must then include civil society and the future (II).

General Procedural Law thus naturally acquires an even more place than in the classic branches of Law since on the one hand it imposes itself outside of trials, particularly in companies and on the other before the courts it involves people who had hardly any place to speak and thinks themselves, especially the systems entering the "causes" of Compliance now debated before the Judge.

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Dec. 14, 2023

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 Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, "The "Judge-Judged". Articulating Words and Things in the face of Conflicts of Interest", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (ed.), Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, coll. "Compliance & Regulation", to be published 

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📝read the article

____

🚧read the bilingual Working Paper which is the basis of this article, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks

____

📘read a general presentation of the book, Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, in which this article is published

____

 Summary of the article (done by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance - JoRC): Since the topic of this article is part of a chapter devoted to the Company established as Prosecutor and Judge of itself by Compliance Law, chapter aiming to use the relevant qualifications, it is appropriate therefore to worry about the adjustment of words and things, of the way in which the relationship between ones and the others evolve, and of the more particular question of knowing if this evolution is radical or not when one speaks of "judge ".

because "judging" is a word that the Law has disputed with other disciplines, but that it has appropriated not so much to confer more powers on those who act in its name, for example that who supervise and punish, but on the contrary to impose limits, since to the one who judges it has put the chains of the procedure under foot, thus making bearable for the other the exercise of such a power. This is why those who want the power to judge would often want to not have the title, because having de jure the title of judge is being subject to the correlated regime, it is to be submitted to procedural correctness.

It is therefore to better limit that the Law sees who judges, for obliging this so-powerful character to the procedure. But the Law also has the power to appoint a judge and to fix the contours of all the characters in the trial. He usually does it with clarity, distinguishing the ones of the others, not confusing them. This art of distinction has constitutional value. Thus, not only the one who judges must be named "judge" but the procedural apparatus which goes with this character and which constitutes a way of doing things and fundamental rights, are not "granted" by kindness or in a second step: it is a block. If you didn't want to have to endure procedural rights, you didn't have to want to be a judge. Admittedly, one could conclude that the procedure would therefore have become "substantial"; by this elevation, it is rather a fashion of saying that the procedure would no longer be a "servant": it is a kind of declaration of love for the procedure, as long as one affirms that at the acts of judging , or investigating, or prosecuting, are "naturally" attached the procedural rights for the one who is likely to be the object of these powers.

Compliance Law, in search of allies to achieve the Monumental Goals for the aims of which it was instituted, will require, or even demand, private companies to go and seek themselves, in particular through investigations. internal or active vigilance on others, for finding facts likely to be reproached to them. Compliance Law will also require that they prosecute those who have committed these acts. Compliance La will again demand that they sanction the acts that people have committed in their name.

This is clearly understood from the point of view of Ex Ante efficiency. The confusion of roles is often very efficient since it is synonymous with the accumulation of powers. For example, it is more efficient that the one who pursues is also the one who instructs and judges, since he knows the case so well... Besides, it is more efficient that he also elaborates the rules, so he knows better than anyone the "spirit" of the texts. This was often emphasized in Regulatory Law. When everything is Information and risk management, that would be necessary ... But all this is not obvious.

For two reasons, one external and the other internal.

Externally, the first reason is that it is not appropriate to "name" a judge who is not. This would be too easy, because it would then be enough to designate anyone, or even to do it oneself to appropriate the regime that goes with it, in particular for obtain a so-called legitimate power for obtaining that others obey even though they are not subordinate or from them they transmit information, even though they would be  competitors: it would then be necessary to remember that only the Law is able to appoint judge ; in this new Compliance era, companies would be judges, prosecutors, investigators!  Maybe, if the Law says it, but if it didn't, it would be necessary to come back to this tautology ... But are we in such a radicalism? Moreover, do judges have "the prerogative" of judgment and the Law has not admitted this power for companies to judge for a long time? As soon as the procedure is there in Ex Ante and the control of the judge in Ex Post?

The second reason, internal to the company, situation on which the article focuses, is that the company investigates itself, judges itself, sanctions itself. However, the legal person expressing its will only through its organs, we underline in practice the difficulties for the same human being to formulate grievances, as he/she is the agent of the legal person, adressed to the natural person that he/she himself/herself is. The two interests of the two are not the same, are often opposed; how the secrets of one can be kept with respect to the other, represented by the same individual? ... It is all the mystery, even the artifice of legal personality that appears and we understand better that Compliance Law no longer wants to use this strange classical notion. Because all the rules of procedure cannot mask that to prosecute oneself does not make more sense than to contract with oneself. This conflict of interest is impossible to resolve because naming the same individual X then naming him/her Y, by declaring open the dispute between them does not make sense.

This dualism, which is impossible to admit when it comes to playing these functions with regard to corporate officers, can come back to life by setting up third parties who will carry secrets and oppositions. For example by the designation of two separate lawyers for the human being agent and the human being representative of the legal person, each lawyer being able to have secrets for each other and to oppose each other. These spaces of reconstitution of the so "natural" oppositions in procedure between the one who judges and the one who is judged can also take the technological form of platforms: where there is no longer anyone, where the process has replaced the procedure, there is no longer any human judgment. We can thus see that the fear of conflicts of interest is so strong that we resign ourselves to saying that only the machine would be "impartial", a derisory conception of impartiality, against which it is advisable to fight.

This then leads to a final question: can the company claim to exercise the jurisdictional power to prosecute and judge and investigate without even claiming to be a prosecutor, an investigating judge, or a court? The company's advantage would be to be able to escape the legal regime that classical Law attaches to its words, mainly the rights of the defense and the rights of action for others, the principle of publicity of justice for everyone, which expresses the link between procedure and democracy . When Facebook said on June 12, 2021 "react" to the decision of May 5, 2021 adopted by what would only be an Oversight Board to decide "as a consequence" of a 2-year suspension of Donald Trump's account, the art of qualifications seem to be used in order to avoid any regime constraint.

But this art of euphemism is very old. Thus the States, when they wanted to increase repression, presented the transformation of the system as a softening of it through the "decriminalization" of Economic Law, transferred from the criminal courts to the independent administrative agencies. The efficiency was greatly increased, since the guarantees of the Criminal Procedure ceased to apply. But 20 years later, Words found their way back to Things: under Criminal Law, slept the "criminal matter", which requires the same "Impartiality". In 1996, a judge once affirmed it and everything was changed. Let us therefore wait for what the Courts will say, since they are the masters of qualifications, as Article 12 of the French Code of Civil Procedure says, as Motulsky wrote it in 1972. Law has time.

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Nov. 17, 2023

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "The deployment of Regulatory Law through Compliance Law in the European project", in G. Hardy & F. Picod, Compliance Regulation from a European Perspective, Law and European Affairs (L.E.A.), 2023/2, pp. 345-352.

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper which is the basis of this article, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks 

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► English Summary of the article: Compliance Law is neither a method of obeying regulations, nor a simple neutral method of ensuring the effectiveness of norms, nor a means of enforcement displaced from Ex Post to Ex Ante. It is an extension of Regulatory Law and goes beyond it. Like it, it aims to build spaces according to a political project specific to an area, such as Europe. Branch of Law looking to the future as Regulatory Law does, it constructs and maintains, in a systemic way, sustainable, albeit unstable, balances to achieve the ‘Monumental Goals’ in which its normativity resides: security, sustainability, probity, truth, and dignity. By internalising these Monumental Goals in the companies that are in a position to achieve them, the “crucial companies”, Compliance Law preserves the logic of Regulatory Law, offering it a prodigious expansion since it frees it from the condi- tion of a sector and territorial borders, which seemed tautological, by associating private powers and public will, which remains primary. In this way, Compliance can regulate the digital space and climate issue through political choices made by a sovereign Europe.

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Nov. 9, 2023

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "La compliance, socle de la confidentialité nécessaire des avis juridiques élaborés en entreprise" ("Compliance, the cornerstone of the confidentiality required for in-house legal opinions"), D. 2023, p.

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📝read the article (in French)

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► English Summary of the article: The French Law about the Ministry of Justice's 2023-2027 Orientation and Programming  ("loi d'orientation et de programmation du ministère de la justice 2023-2027") had introduced into the French legal system the confidentiality of in-house lawyers' opinions (before the  French Constitutional Council, on a question of parliamentary procedure, annulled this disposition, thus leaving the question still open).

 This development is necessary in order to respond to the injunction for companies to comply more and more with the regulations, which is itself only one of the tools of a wider movement: Compliance Law.

This branch of the law, notably through the French so-called Sapin 2 Act of 2016, the French Vigilance Act of 2017 and the European Digital Services Act (DSA), requires companies to implement the necessary means to satisfy the Monumental Goals contained in the laws or regulations. This presupposes, firstly, that companies have information (via alerts, risk mapping, vigilance, sustainability reports, etc.), enabling them to identify their conformity and non-conformity, so that they can, secondly, take effective action to put an end to current breaches, prevent future breaches and achieve the goals set by the Legislator.

This Compliance System requires that the information made available to managers is reliable and honest. However, if non-conformity is not analysed and communicated in a way that is protected by confidentiality, the company will prefer not to know about it and will therefore be unable to take appropriate action, which will deprive the social community of its power to act in the future. This is why the confidentiality of in-house lawyers' opinions is based on the very definition of Compliance Law itself.

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Nov. 9, 2023

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 Full Reference: M.-A. Frison-Roche, "Reinforce the Judge and the Lawyer to impose Compliance Law as a characteristic of the Rule of Law", in M.-A. Frison-Roche (ed.), Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, coll. "Compliance & Regulation", to be published.

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📝read the article

____

🚧read the bilingual Working Paper which is the basis of this article, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks

____

📘read a general presentation of the book, Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, in which this article is published

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 This article is the introduction of the book.  

 Summary of the article (done by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance): One can understand that the compliance mechanisms are presented with hostility because they seem designed to keep the judge away, whereas there is no Rule of Law without a judge. Solid arguments present compliance techniques as converging towards the uselessness of the judge (I). Certainly, we come across magistrates, and of all kinds, and powerful ones, but that would be a sign of imperfection: its ex-ante logic has been deployed in all its effectiveness, the judge would no longer be required... And the lawyer would disappear so with him...

This perspective of a world without a judge, without a lawyer and ultimately without Law, where algorithms could organize through multiple processes in Ex Ante the obedience of everyone, the "conformity" of all our behaviors with all the regulatory mass that is applicable to us, supposes that this new branch of Law would be defined as the concentration of processes which gives full effectiveness to all the rules, regardless of their content. But supposing that this engineer's dream is even achievable, it is not possible in a democratic and free world to do without judges and lawyers.

Therefore, it is imperative to recognize their contributions to Compliance Law, related and invaluable contributions (II).

First of all, because a pure Ex Ante never existed and even in the time of the Chinese legists📎!footnote-2689, people were still needed to interpret the regulations because a legal order must always be interpreted Ex Post by who must in any case answer the questions posed by the subjects of law, as soon as the political system admits to attributing to them the right to make claims before the Judge. Secondly the Attorney, whose office, although articulated with the Judge's office, is distinct from the latter, both more restricted and broader since he must appear in all cases where the judicial figure puts himself in square, outside the courts. However, Compliance Law has multiplied this since not only, extending Regulatory Law, it entrusts numerous powers to the administrative authorities, but it also transforms companies into judges, in respect of which the attorneys must deal with.

Even more so, Compliance Law only takes its sense from its Monumental Goals📎!footnote-2690. It is in this that this branch of the Law preserves the freedom of human beings, in the digital space where the techniques of compliance protect them from the power of companies by the way that the Compliance Law forces these companies to use their power to protect people. However, firstly, it is the Judges who, in their diversity📎!footnote-2691, impose as a reference the protection of human beings, either as a limit to the power of compliance tools📎!footnote-2692 or as their very purpose. Secondly, the Attorney, again distinguishing himself from the Judge, if necessary, reminds us that all the parties whose interests are involved must be taken into consideration. In an ever more flexible, soft and dialogical Law, everyone presenting himself as the "advocate" of such and such a monumental goal: the Attorney is legitimate to be the first to occupy this place.

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Nov. 9, 2023

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Main Aspects of the Book. Compliance Jurisdictionalisation", in M.-A. Frison-Roche, (ed.), Compliance JurisdictionalisationJournal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) and Bruylant, coll. "Compliance & Regulation", to be published

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📝This article constitutes the first part of the Introduction of the book; its access is free

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📘read a general presentation of the book, Compliance Jurisdictionalisation, in which this article is published

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 Summary of the article (done by the Journal of Regulation & Compliance - JoRC) : This free access article ⤵️ explains firstly the general purpose of the book and secondly how the book is structured in 4 chapters.

Then, thirdly and following the table of contents, this article takes up in a few lines each of the contributions.

This is how the "main aspects" of the book Compliance Jurisdictionalisation become even clearer

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🔓read this article in full text⤵️

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Sept. 15, 2023

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 Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Compliance : demandez le programme !" ("Compliance: ask for the programme!), J.D.E., 2023/7, No. 301, p. 349.

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📝read the article (in French)

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🌐see the LinkedIn post presenting this article

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► Summary of the article: Compliance programmes are neither constraints imposed by a 'mad regulator' forcing companies to show in advance that they comply with all the regulations applicable to them, nor are they a delegation by the State of tasks it is incapable of accomplishing, such as eradicating corruption or stopping global warming.

On the contrary, they are a tool in the service of the alliance between public authorities and companies in the pursuit of the Monumental Goals of Compliance Law. Through them, the company implements actions to prevent the systemic risks associated with its activity. It thus assists the authorities in regulating new areas (digital, space) while adopting a sustainable strategy. As a result, it does not suffer from regulations, but participates in shaping the future. In this future, the judge plays a central role in shaping the compliance programmes that will be raised or challenged in 'systemic cases'.

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Sept. 7, 2023

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► Full ReferenceM.-A. Frison-Roche, "Droit de la compliance et climat. Pour prévenir le risque et construire l'équilibre climatiques" ("Compliance Law and climate. Prevent the climate risk and build the climate balance"), in M. Torre Schaub, A. Stevignon and B. Lormeteau (ed.), Les risques climatiques à l'épreuve du droit, Mare & Martin, coll. "Collection de l'Institut des sciences juridique et philosophique de la Sorbonne", 2023, pp.73-83

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📝read the article (in French)

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🚧read the bilingual Working Paper which is the basis of this article, with additional developments, technical references and hyperlinks

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► Summary of the article: Compliance Law is beginning to emerge in climate topic, through the expression  "Climate Compliance Law", but the climate issue itself is the most perfect example of why General Compliance Law is made for.  It is indeed a new branch of Law, a global Law claiming to provide Ex Ante solutions here and now for global issues, so that in the future systemic catastrophies will not occur, will not happen: it is these "Monumental Goals" that give meaning, coherence, and simplicity to Compliance Law.

Compliance Law, linked to the Rule of Law principle, makes it possible to go beyond the choice often presented between the effectiveness of the protection of the planet and the renunciation of freedoms, in particular the freedom to do business and the freedom of individuals, especially the protection of their data.

Climate is thus exemplary of the object of Monumental Goals of Compliance Law (I). The systemic risk that it now constitutes is analogous to Banking or Digital Systemic Risks and therefore calls for the application of identical legal Compliance Tools, formerly put in place for Banking Regulatory and Compliance Law, recently invented for Digital. Compliance Law, extending Regulation Law, itself from the precondition of the Sector and the Territory, is therefore the branch which makes it possible to put in place new legal solutions, either by force (judicial agreements, compliance programs, etc.), or by will (commitments, global charters, etc.).

Therefore, an alliance can exist between political and public authorities, and crucial economic operators (II), that the rise in power of the "raison d'être" is the sight and whose technical challenge is the collection of information that must be put in correlation. Scientists pooling Information, this public good, provided by public and private entities. The courts are at the center of this articulation between Compliance Law and Climate, which object is the Future.

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