The recent news

Dec. 17, 2020


Référence : Frison-Roche, M.-A., Personnage du "Juge Unique" dans le procès pour s'amuser Procès de Denis Mazeaud. 

Initiative des étudiants de Denis Mazeaud.

Regarder ce "procès"  fait pour s'amuser contre "l'As des As".

Il faut bien se mettre à 6 ou 7, pour tenter de mettre en difficulté l'As des As qu'est Denis Mazeaud...

L'ensemble des mises en accusation par les uns et les autres puis contre chaque réquisitoire la défense par Denis Mazeaud de Denis Mazeaud (qui n'a pas voulu d'avocat) a lieu de 16h30 à 17h15.

Lire plus d'information. 


Dec. 14, 2020


Full Reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A., The Economic Attractiveness of Impartiality ("L'attractivité économique de l'impartialité"), in ""Economic Attractiveness, Judge Office and Impartiality. Thinking the judge Office" ("L'attractivité économique, l'office du juge et l'impartialité. Penser l'office du juge"), 

This conference was held in French.

Read the colloquium program ( in French)

See the general program of the cycle on the Judge Office.

See the inaugural colloquium of the general cycle. 


See the conference (in French)


Read the Working Paper, basis of this conference.

This Working Paper is significantly different from the conference because it was conceived befor the colloquia cycle beginning. In addition, since this manifestation was a Round Table, the conference has taken more into account previous conferences and what said the other two speakers.


See the slides basis of the conference (in French)

The slides could not be shown during the conference. Orally, it was appropriate to more develop the introductory remarks for emphasizing the human and unique dimension of the Judge Office, expected in economic matters. As a result, the second part of the conference was not given orally, so slides therefore remain the only media available.


Summary of the conference : To fit into the ambition of this general colloquia cycle, which is to "Think the Judge Office" and in this round table which apprehends the imperative of economic attractiveness of this office, firstly emerges the seemingly contradictory relationship between this imperative and the distance that the judge must maintain. Thus it is often asserted that the judge should be internalized at this point in the "places", - an economic concept of great scope (to which the first part of the introduction is devoted, defining the "place" at the same time as a closed and porous space and as a "systemic litigant" -, that he/she should ipso facto lose his/her distance, that is to say his/her impartiality. As places are in competition, even if weighing on one hand the effectiveness of the place, and on the other hand the impartiality of a judge who is external to this place - Judge referring to the Law , Impartiality would necessarily emerge weakened. It would then be necessary on a case-by-case basis to get the judge to give the desired concessions...

The conference aim is to take the opposite position and to state that the Place - in particular because they must be strongly distinguished from the Markets, of which they were the ancestors - require a Judge, who is at the same time "singular", that is to say with a personality, a face, opinions, and in distance so that his/her imagination does not surprise Place. Indeed, these require a human Justice, and a not mechanical one and singular judges, of whom the juge des référés or the arbitrator are the epigone, meets this need. But for reducing their "margins of discretion", how Economy qualifies the Impartiality of a person who can never be neutral, the singular Judge's Office must be inserted into mechanisms reducing these margins. In this way, the Place may reach a Judge who is always more impartial, and in doing so the Place becomes always more attractive.

To achieve this in practice, the place expresses two legitimate expectations, as a "systemic litigant", whose satisfaction increases and the singular Judge's Impartiality and increases the Attractiveness of the Place as a space. This clearly shows that the Place's Attractiveness and the Judge's Impartiality, because judges are inserted into procedures, into institutions and into a "jurisdictional family", are not only not contradictory, but are on the contrary convergent, one fueling the other.

Concretely, and judicial practice shows it, it is necessary to consolidate the particular Judge's Impartiality by inserting him/her into collective processes. As it is necessary to promote a radiance of Impartiality by strengthening the "jurisdictional family".

To consolidate the singular Judge's Impartiality  by inserting him/her into collective processes, it is necessary to admit without hesitation the subjectivity of the judge, to seek it even. The reduction of the margins of discretion, definition of impartiality, being obtained by the inclusion of the judge in a procedure of which he /her alone is the master but in which he/her is not alone. This has the technical consequence that he/her is himself/herself in an adversarial debate, not only during the proceedings, but also before (in the media), inside the judgment (and the decision of the Criminal Chamber of 25 November 2020 is a model of that) and after the judgment. By that, the Judge shows that by his/her office he/she is in the future, as climate justice will show. In addition, to limit his/her margins of discretion, the singular judge must fit into a rational principle of coherence, vertical and horizontal. Vertical coherence, because he/she integrates what it is said and the technique of the "determining opinion" is to be encouraged, the singular judge having to avoid it only if he/she has "strong reasons" to do it. This is to follow  this general rule Comply or Explain (which is the very opposite of blind obedience). Horizontal coherence, because the singular judge either sticks to what he/she said, estoppel also being a rule of logic. But above all, the institution must extract as much as possible from " institutional doctrines", by all means, of which the annual reports are an example.

To consolidate the singular Judge's Impartiality by strengthening the notion and reality of the "Jurisdictional Family", it is necessary to have of it a broader conception, which could lead to "guidelines" common to various jurisdictions, and a stronger one, by integrating those surrounding the judge to lead to judgment. In this, the procedure before the Court of Justice of the European Union, working on a common file, is a model. If this community were even stronger, the Judge Office would be even more useful than it is already in the digital space.

Thus, Judges who are always human, always diverse, always singular, who listen, consider and adjust to the situation, who within a Jurisdictional Family fit into an Institutional Doctrine which transcends and supports them but which they transform if there is a strong reason to do so, a reason always expressed said: this is the embodied Impartiality that makes an economic and financial Place attractive.






Dec. 9, 2020

Teachings : Generall Regulatory law

Au sens juridique, la responsabilité désigne le fait de "répondre", mais au sens commun la responsabilité désigne le fait d'avoir du pouvoir et de l'exercer dans les marges que donne la liberté d'action. Les deux sens doivent converger dans un système libéral.

Puisqu'il a été montré que les Régulateurs sont les maîtres des secteurs, ils seraient donc logiques qu'ils sont responsables. Mais, c'est encore un point commun qu'ils ont avec les juges, parce qu'ils sont consubstantiellement indépendants, ils ne peuvent pas voir leur responsabilité engagées. Cependant le droit positif a posé le principe de la Responsabilité de l'Etat du fait de leur Autorités de Régulation, tandis que leur irresponsabilité politique comparée à l'ampleur de leurs pouvoirs a souvent était le ferment de leur contestation.

Par ailleurs, le mécanisme général de la responsabilité est utilisé, notamment parce que les mécanismes du Droit de la Régulation sont eux-mêmes défaillants. En effet, comme l'a montré Alain Supiot, l'on peut "prendre la responsabilité au sérieux" et, si l'on applique cette perspective plus particulièrement à l'espace numérique, cela permettra de pallier les défaillances de la Régulation publique elle-même. En effet, il existe des sortes de  "trous noirs régulatoires", dont relève encore notamment le numérique.

Mais cette violence de la responsabilité ainsi conçue ne doit pas s'appliquer à tous les opérateurs économiques. En effet, cette responsabilité "proactive" qui dépasse le mécanisme de l'Ex Post vers l'Ex Ante ne doit s'appliquer qu'aux opérateurs régulés, éventuellement aux "opérateurs cruciaux, pour qu'à travers leur personne, les buts de la régulation soient atteints (mécanisme de compliance). Les opérateurs ordinaires doivent demeurer dans un mécanisme Ex Post, la responsabilité ne devant pas engendrer des "devoirs généraux de prise en charge d'autrui", car l'entreprise ordinaire n'est pas de même nature que l'État.


D'une façon spécifique et au besoin :


D'une façon plus générale et au besoin :


Consulter ci-dessous la bibliographie spécifique à cette leçon portant sur la Responsabilité et la Régulation:

Updated: Dec. 3, 2020 (Initial publication: July 15, 2020)


Full Reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A., Rights, primary and natural Compliance Tools, Working Paper, July  2020.

This Working paper is the basis for an article to be published in the collective book  Compliance Tools .


There was a time when Regulatory techniques  were above all only calculations of the best tarifications, taken up by monopolistic companies, while Compliance techniques were only obedience to all rules governing us. All this could therefore only be business of abacus and badine, used by engineers and consisted only of mechanical reflexes of "conformity" to all kinds of rules with the corset ensuring that everyone is bent in front of them!footnote-1946. In the perspective of a Regulation and Compliance thus conceived, that is to say effective, it would not be necessary to insert prerogatives for people, since these could only be sources of inefficiency, of cost. and protest, where the order would come from figures set in advance and controlled processes.

Systems have since evolved to integrate these prerogatives of each person: rights. Is this evolution really acquired? Maybe more effectively in Regulation Law than in its extension which is Compliance Law. This may be surprising since Compliance Law, in that it extends Regulatory Law in enterprises should, on the contrary, promote rights by meeting the enterprise, which is a group of people ....!footnote-1986 . But the modern reluctance to define the enterprise (and the company) as a group of people and the preference given to a definition of the company (and the enterprise) as an "asset", a "good" of which investors would be the owners, maybe explains the sidelining of rights not only in Regulatory Law but also in Compliance Law even though it is being deployed in the space of the enterprise!footnote-1987.

In addition, if Regulation has long been the subject of a branch of Law in which rights have full place, the presentation of Compliance as "conformity", that is to say the proven assurance of obedience to all the applicable rules, leaves no space for the prerogatives of people, which appear rather as resistance to the obedience that would be expected of them. There again, the expectation of what would be a good ratio of conformity between behaviors and prescriptions would be obtained by a "design", data processing being the new form of calculation, improved by precision tools where the being human is not required!footnote-1989. His fallibility and the little confidence which one can place in him leads even to exclude the people and to conceive Compliance system between machines, not only to alert of the failures, but also to manufacture the "regulations" and to connect those. here, in a "regulatory fabric" without a jump stitch, entirely enveloping human beings!footnote-1990.

It would therefore be with regret, and probably because some constitutional jurisdictions still attach some value to fundamental rights that the systems of "conformity" of behavior to the rules make some room for the prerogatives of people, their more essential rights. It is sometimes said that this is part of the cost. It would therefore be as by "forcing" that rights would exist in Compliance systems, a kind of price that the effectiveness of Compliance must pay as a tribute to the Rule of Law principle!footnote-1991.

If in a poor definition Compliance is conceived in this only "conformity", leading to a landscape in which the behaviors of the people adjust to the rules governing the situations, Compliance being only the most "effective way" to ensure the application of the rules, in a mechanical perspective of Law, then it would effectively be necessary to reduce the prerogatives of people to a minimal part, because any "additional cost" is intended to disappear, even if it is produced here by constitutional requirements. In the looming battle between the effectiveness of the application of rules and the concern for the legal prerogatives of people who should above all obey and not claim their rights, especially their right not to obey , or their right to keep secret in Compliance techniques which is based on the centralization of information, the effectiveness of efficiency could only, by the very power of this tautology, prevail!footnote-1988... 

The defeat would not be total, however, collaboration would still be possible and active between people availing themselves of their rights and Compliance Law. Indeed, in many respects, if rights have been recognized in Compliance systems, it is not only because Compliance Law, like any branch of Law, can only be deployed with respect for fundamental rights. kept by fundamental legal texts, but also because of the effectiveness of rights as " Compliance Tools".

Indeed, because they constitute a very effective "tool" to ensure the entire functioning of a system whose goals are so difficult to achieve, because every effort must be made to achieve these goals, the public authorities not only rely on the power of crucial operators, but also distribute prerogatives to people who, thus encouraged, activate the Compliance system and participate in the achievement of the "monumental goals". Rights can prove to be the most effective tools to effectively achieve the goals set, to such an extent that they can be considered as "primary tools"  (I).

But it is necessary to be more ambitious, even to reverse the perspective. Indeed because all the Monumental Goals by which Compliance Law is defined can be reduced to the protection of people, that is to say to the effectiveness of their prerogatives, by a mirror effect between rights. given by Law to persons and the rights which constitute the very purpose of all Compliance Law, in particular the protection of all human beings, even if they are in a situation of great weakness, rights become a "natural tool" of Compliance Law (II).

Rights are the Compliance Law future. 

Dec. 2, 2020

Editorial responsibilities : Direction de la collection "Droit et Économie", L.G.D.J. - Lextenso éditions (30)

Full reference: Racine, J.-B. (ed.), Le droit économique au XXIe siècle. Notions et enjeux, Coll. Droit & Economie, LGDJ-Lextenso, 2020, 726 p.


Summary of the book : 

Economic Law has not been so important than today, at a time of phenomenal changes in our societies. Economics are everywhere and Law is directly requested, to accompany, frame and finalize economics. Economic Law, which remain without definition, must be perceived now as a fundamental understanding tool of the realities of our time. This book proposes both to take stock of what Economic Law is at the start of the XXIst century and to give prospective analysis of what it could be in the years to come. It has been designed as a collective research based on  30 key-words (like the firm, the market, globalization, artificial intelligence). Each author has taken a notion by placing it in a logic of Economic Law. It is therefore on a transversal and thematic analysis that the book is based.

Economic Law is an open house. While it seeks diverse schools of thought, it gives pride of place to diversity. The book has been realized in this spirit. If it gather many authors from Nice's school, it is also open to other perspectives and opinions. Economic Law, through its research topics and analysis methods is in constant change. This research shows that economics is a topic which crosses every legal branches, beyond business Law. 

The book is aimed at students wishing to familiarize themselves with Economic Law process, researchers intending to explore Economic Law themes in depth, and also practitioners who are looking for keys to understanding the current issues raised by the relationship between Law and Economics. 


List of authors:

  • Jean-Baptiste Racine
  • Éric Balate
  • Jennifer Bardy
  • Jean-Sylvestre Bergé
  • Walid Chaiehloudj
  • Jacques Chevallier
  • Bruno Deffains
  • Catherine Del Cont
  • Pascale Deumier
  • Isabelle Doussan
  • Aude-Solveig Epstein
  • Marie-Anne Frison-Roche
  • Giulio Cesare Giorgini
  • Lemy Godefroy
  • Marie-Angèle Hermitte
  • Clotilde Jourdain-Fortier
  • Gilles J. Martin
  • Frédéric Marty
  • Séverine Menétrey
  • Mehdi Mezaguer
  • Eva Mouial Bassilana
  • Irina Parachkévova-Racine
  • Thomas Perroud
  • Valérie Pironon
  • Patrice Reis
  • Fabrice Riem
  • Jean-Christophe Roda
  • Mahmoud Mohamed Salah
  • Fabrice Siiriainen
  • Katja Sontag
  • Marina Teller
  • Anne Trescases


Read the table of contents

Read Jean-Baptiste Racine's introductive article

Read Marie-Anne Frison-Roche's article and read the bilingual working paper on which this article is based

Dec. 2, 2020

Teachings : Compliance Law

Imaginons une scène comme celle-ci :




Albert est votre meilleur ami. Il est encore étudiant. Le Droit, c’est sa passion.

Il suit à titre principal les cours donnés par l’Ecole de l’Innovation et du Savoir Ouvert, dans la Majeure qui porte sur question de l’Interdépendance Autopoïétique des systèmes référentiels globalisés. Cette école a obtenu que le Mastère dont il aura le titre en juin de l’année prochaine en passant un oral écrit lui permette de se présenter à l’examen pour devenir avocat.

Comme Albert est très sérieux, il travaille le mardi et le jeudi matin dans un cabinet d’avocat.

Cela lui plaît beaucoup.

D’autant plus qu’il a fait la connaissance de Gustave, qui est Avocat depuis 3 ans déjà et qui lui raconte plein d’histoires, d’où il résulte toujours qu’il a gagné, dans des dossiers pourtant bien difficiles, mais il maîtrise l’art de convaincre les jurés et le Code de procédure pénale « n’a plus de secret pour lui ». C’est ce qu’il lui raconte pendant le déjeuner qu’ils prennent souvent ensemble.

Ils ne déjeunent pas avec Maître Constant, qui est l’un des associés fondateurs du cabinet. Il est beaucoup trop important. D’ailleurs il n’est jamais disponible, car il passe son temps en réunion, en avion, en conférence ou bien on ne sait pas où il est … La vie des avocats, cela a ses secrets, aussi.

Au cours d’un déjeuner, Gustave semble manquer d’appétit. Lui toujours si content de lui qu’il dévore toujours le plat du jour… Il raconte à Albert qu’il avait trouvé un client en or, Damien ! Un peu voyant dans ses costumes, peut-être, mais tout le monde ne peut pas avoir l’élégance discrète des costumes bleu nuit de Maître Constant…. Damien lui a indiqué ce matin qu’il allait transférer de l’argent pour acheter les douaniers d’un port lointain et qu’il convenait, par sécurité juridique, que ces fonds passent par un compte CARPA, le sien. Gustave, encore frais de ses cours, avait bondi et dans un élan admirable, en faisant de grands gestes, - pour un peu il aurait pris sa robe qui était sur le porte-manteau -, avait évoqué Domat, Pothier, Cicéron, Motulsky, Kelsen, Thucydide ; de guerre lasse, et ne serait-ce que pour qu’il se taise, Damien avait déclaré ne plus vouloir rien faire, afin que tous ces individus ne déboulent pas chez lui…

Il est vrai que Damien n’était peut-être pas quelqu’un de très recommandable… Le Droit contraint-il pour autant Gustave, ou Albert, à alerter les autorités ?

Car des clients peu recommandables, les cabinets d’avocats en ont parfois. Mais choisit-on vraiment ses clients ? Par exemple, Maître Constant a reçu hier Olivia qui lui a exposé avoir transféré des informations défense d’un service, pourtant sécurisé où elle est compliance officer, vers un service administratif d’un pays lointain, en échange de quoi à la fois elle dispose de beaucoup d’argent frais, mais elle craint aussi pour sa vie.

Elle est venue demander à Maître Constant ce qui va se passer si la justice française lui demande des comptes avant qu’elle ne trouve refuge dans un autre pays lointain.

Maître Constant demande à Gustave, qui demande à Albert, qui vous demande, s’il doit raconter tout cela aux autorités publiques, ou s’il peut le faire.

Comme vous êtes l’ami d’Albert, vous allez l’aider à répondre à tout cela.

Dec. 2, 2020


Dec. 1, 2020

Antechronological CV




Academic Titles and diploma (for more details, s. general CV,) :

♦ Full professor of University, first Class.

♦ Major (first place) of the Agrégation des Facultés de Droit en droit privé et sciences criminelles (French National recruitment Contest for recrutement of University Professors in Private and Criminal Law), 1991, 

♦ PHD in Law, Paris Panthéon-Assas University, Summa Cum Laude ; thesis published

♦ Master in Private Law, Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Cum Laude  

♦ Bachelor in Philosophy, Sorbonne University,

♦ Master in Procedural Law, Panthéon-Assas University, Summa Cum Laude