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July 9, 2020

Conferences

Référence complète : Frison-Roche, M.-A., participation à la Table-ronde du Campus du Barreau de Paris, sur "Le droit de la compliance : une solution pour les crises présentes et à venir ?", 9 juillet 2020. 

Consulter la présentation des intervenants à cette table-ronde. 

Présentation du sujet discuté par les participants à la Table-ronde : 

"Crise sanitaire, crise économique, urgence climatique … les réponses étatiques ou inter-étatiques ont-elles montré leurs limites dans la gestion de ces crises ou restent-elles incontournables ?

Faut-il au contraire envisager, via le droit de la compliance, d’impliquer et de responsabiliser davantage les entreprises pour une meilleure prévention de ces risques à l’échelle planétaire?".

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Consulter les slides servant de support à la présentation générale du thème, ouvrant cette Table-Ronde. 

 

Cette intervention s'adosse notamment à une étude précédemment écrite affirmant que le Droit de la Compliance est une branche nouvelle du Droit apte à prévenir et à gérer les crises sanitaires, présentes et futures : Compliance Law, Health Crisis and Future, 2020. 

July 1, 2020

Publications

La formation, c'est comme certaines choses  - et des plus précieuses - que l'on fait, voire dont on rêve, mais que l'on massacre dès l'instant qu'on les prend qu'on les prend comme objet de dissertation. Just do it

Mais il serait bien malheureux de publier un ouvrage sur Les outils de la Compliance sans qu'une place particulière et importante soit faite à la formation. Tant d'argent consacré, de gré ou de force, notamment lorsque les programmes de compliance imposées au titre de sanction pénale comprennent de lourdes obligations de formation. Tant de discours sur la nécessité d'une "culture de compliance" qui devrait être inculquée à l'intérieur des entreprises, la Compliance se mariant alors dans une nouvelle harmonie avec la "raison d'être" et l'identité historique du groupe de personne qu'est une entreprise à travers des formations qui raconte à ceux avec lesquels les managers veulent renouver un contrat moral dans une éthique au nom de laquelle ils donne le bon exemple. Et voilà des conférences, des sessions, des rencontres, des voyages où l'on fête la Compliance, comme si les banquets de la Troisième République avaient enfin trouvé leur nouvelle occasion de renaître!

Les écrits sur la formation exposent le plus souvent ce qu'elle doit être et un esprit chagrin mesure ce qui paraît parfois un gouffre entre la description qui est faite par 

 

 

June 18, 2020

Publications

This working document, "The Dreamed Compliance Law", is the basis for an article, written in French, "Compliance", inserted in the collective work to be published under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Racine, Le Droit économique du XXIème siècle, in the Serie Droit & Economie LGDJ-Lextenso, 2020.

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No one can know what the Law of the 21st century will be. Pretending to know it is just not to realize its ignorance. Why then writing about it, since the future is always surprising?

One can only write about the unknown part of the Law of tomorrow. If the future is then modeled on what was written, so much the better for the prophet, a tribute that can, for example, be paid to Pierre Godé!footnote-1813 who described in 1999 what was going to be 10 years later "Law of the future" constituted by Environmental Law!footnote-1804. If the future denies the author or if its contours in no way follow the lines of the written word, this is not serious since the writing of the Law, even if it has the specificity of being partly prescriptive in that it has the power to write the future, a normative pen that rounds up letters!footnote-1805, it participates in all writing: above all to be that of a dream.

Lévi-Strauss argued that teaching is defined as dreaming out loud. Teaching and describing the Law of a century that we will never know gives even more freedom to dream about it. This freedom increases when the object is a branch of Law in the process of being born, state of the stammering "Compliance Law" of which some still maintain, as it was made for Regulation Law, that there is not existing. The hand can then, as it pleases, trace its beautiful or hideous features: what face will Compliance Law have, as soon as we assume that it will exist?

It may as well be a nightmare (I) as a happy dream (II).

It is up to us to choose in which category this branch of Law will flourish. Because what we can be sure of is this fulfillment. It is certainly already taking sides to presuppose the very existence of Compliance Law. Not only to consider it possibility with hostility because to be an enemy of something or someone is already to recognize their existence. Before that, two objections radically block the very existence of Compliance Law and their shadow remains in the future of it!footnote-1809.

Firstly, it is said that Compliance does not come under Law, but for example only ethics since it would consist in keeping well in companies which care about the interest of others or the planet, for example by spontaneous care of the environment; Compliance being a crystallization of social responsibility, the one for which we have our conscience, we express our "raison d'être" and we are not accountable!footnote-1807. Or it would consist in technologically putting in place tools for capturing technical information using data storage and processing methods. Compliance is then a sub-category of "Data Regulation"!!footnote-1814, a mechanical concept in which Law is no more present. In these two perspectives, Compliance Law cannot exist, no more tomorrow than it would exist today. These two radical conceptions, completely entrusting Compliance mechanisms to everyone except lawyers, do not make sense because it suffices to note the development of judgments and laws to measure the legal phenomenon already present!footnote-1808.

Second, there would be many Compliance mechanisms but insufficient to constitute a branch of Law. Indeed we would find Compliance in Company Law, Labor Law, Financial Law, Banking Law, Criminal Law, Administrative Law, European Law, International Law, etc.

These classic branches, which have been formed for so long, depending on the point of view adopted, would gain in modernity or be threatened with decay by this kind of extension which will be Compliance. There would thus be as many "little legal sectoral rules" as there are branches of law. These new internal developments would be like a new bud, on which care should be taken - if the tree regains its strength - or a weed to be eradicated - if the French garden loses its perspective.

Thus the matter being scattered as many as specialist lawyers, often criminalists or specialists in banking and Financial Law, then tomorrow all specialists in all branches of Law, this could constitute the most radical obstacle to Compliance Law. Indeed, we would come back to confuse Compliance and the "modernization" of Law itself as a whole, since it would only be a question of perfecting each of the classic branches of the legal system.

If we keep in this half-sleep that is any projection in the future the hope of a branch of the constituted Law, we must discard these two perspectives of annihilation, in the total absence of Law as in recovery by all Law. To dismiss the sorrowful spirits who see no future in Compliance and keep only its enemies in the space of this article, let us assume that Compliance Law will exist in the 21st century. In what form and by what means, in the palm of which institutions, in the shadow of which legal system? Since it is a question of projecting ourselves onto the black screen of our nights of dreamy lawyers, let us take the current state only as a trailer. Like the one developed by the genius who by the contempt not only brought down into the flames of hell the cinema which has become a consumer industry with which producers force-feed us but offered us the vision of its future. What is what we see today the trailer? We let our imagination run wild since the trailer films are autonomous works compared to the film which follows them.

We have no idea what will happen and what we are watching from the brief and violent current images of Compliance Law, the cinema of which rather makes a hero of the whistleblower!footnote-1811 and a character of the narrow and ridiculous importance of the compliance officer!footnote-1812, does little to help us. But if we force the features of the present lineaments, the alternative of this Law in childhood is therefore that of a nightmare (I) or an idyllic solution for difficulties that will increase (II).

Everything will depend on the concept that we will retain of Compliance Law. Because the script is not written, because Compliance Law is a Law with a political dimension, that it is defined by the ambitions that we can claim to have by setting monumental goals that we are going to achieve, a claim that will make it one major branch of the Law of tomorrow, or we can abandon any claim, lower our heads and arms, and reject any claim. It is then that the power of Compliance Law, which will be no less great, will turn against us, human beings, as in a nightmare.

 

June 18, 2020

Organization of scientific events

Comme les précédents cycles consacrés au thème général de la Compliance et visant à construire un "Droit de la Compliance", ayant vocation comme eux à être publiés dans la série Régulation & Compliancecoéditée entre le Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et les Éditions Dalloz, ce cycle continue d'approfondir un aspect particulier de cette branche du Droit en train d'être inventée, s'étant appliqué avant même d'avoir été conçu. 

L'année universitaire 2020/2021 donne lieu à deux cycles complets et distincts de colloques, l'un approfondissant un concept-clé du Droit de la Compliance, à savoir les "buts monumentaux", tandis que l'autre silonne un phénomène aux multiples racines et conséquences : "La juridictionnalisation de la Compliance. 

La Juridictionnalisation de la Compliance  est peut-être aussi ancienne que les mécanismes de Compliance eux-mêmes. 

 

Ces diverses conférences auront lieu dans plusieurs lieux, selon la part prise par les très nombreuses structures universitaires qui cette année encore apportent leur concours au Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) pour la réalisation du cycle. Il en résultera deux ouvrages, l'un en langue française : La Juridictionnalisation de la Compliance, l'autre en langue anglaise : Juridictionnalization of Compliance. 

Ce cycle de conférences La Juridictionnalisation de la Compliance débutera en octobre 2020 et se prolongera jusqu'en octobre 202.

 

June 18, 2020

Organization of scientific events

Comme les précédents cycles consacrés au thème général de la Compliance et visant à construire un "Droit de la Compliance", ayant vocation comme eux à être publiés dans la série Régulation & Compliancecoéditée entre le Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) et les Éditions Dalloz, ce cycle continue d'approfondir un aspect particulier de cette branche du Droit en train d'être inventée, s'étant appliqué avant même d'avoir été conçu.

L'année universitaire 2020/2021 donne lieu à deux cycles complets et distincts de colloques, l'un approfondissant un concept-clé du Droit de la Compliance, à savoir les "buts monumentaux", tandis que l'autre silonne un phénomène aux multiples racines et conséquences : "La juridictionnalisation de la Compliance". 

Les buts monumentaux de la Compliance  expression proposée en 2016, ....

 

Ces diverses conférences auront lieu dans plusieurs lieux, selon la part prise par les très nombreuses structures universitaires qui cette année encore apportent leur concours au Journal of Regulation & Compliance (JoRC) pour la réalisation du cycle. Il en résultera deux ouvrages, l'un en langue française : Les Buts monumentaux de la Compliance, l'autre en langue anglaise : Compliance Monumental Goals. 

Ce cycle de conférences Les Buts monumentaux de la Compliance débutera en octobre 2020 et se prolongera jusqu'en octobre 202.

 

May 28, 2020

Publications

Full reference: Frison-Roche, M.-A., L'impossible unicité juridique de la catégorie des "lanceurs d'alertes" ("The impossible legal unicity of the category of "whistleblowers""), in Chacornac, J. (dir.), Lanceurs d'alertes, regards comparatistes, ("Whistleblowers, comparative perspectives"), Publications of the Centre français de droit comparé ("French Comparative Law Center"), May 2020, Volume 21, p.13-31. 

 

Read the article (in French). 

Read the bilingual working paper which had served of basis for this article. 

Read the presentation of the conference "Les lanceurs d'alertes: glose" (Whistleblowers: glose") and especially the slides, during the colloquium organized by the Centre français de droit comparé ("French Comparative Law Center") on 23th of November 2018 under the direction of Jérôme Chacornac

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Introduction of the article

"Whistleblowers". This is a new expression. Which is a great success. Barely heard once, we hear it everywhere ...

A topic not of course or knowledge test, but rather a topic of daily conversation. Because it is spoken to us every day, in more or less gracious terms. For example President Donald Trump on October 1, 2019 declared to the press "want to question" the whistleblower who would have illegally denounced him and would not, according to him, have the right to conceal his identity, proof in this according to him of the lying character of his assertions against him, while his lawyer indicates on October 6, 2019 that he is not speaking on behalf of a single whistleblower thus taken to task but of a plurality of people who gave information against the President of the United States. Even the most imaginative screenwriters would not have written such brutal and rapid twists and turns. Spectators, we are waiting for the next episode, secretly hoping for the escalation.

And precisely if we go to the cinema, it is still a whistleblower whose dedication and success, we are told about, even the drama, for the benefit of global society, and in particular democracy, since the secrets are fought for the benefit of the truth. The Secret Man designates Mark Felt as the first whistleblower. Returning to what we often present as being a more "serious" media!footnote-1391, we listen to France-Culture and here is another story told by a historian who worked as an archivist on events that political power would have liked to keep hidden by possibly destroying their traces but which its trade led to preserve: here it is expressly presented to the studious listeners like a "whistleblower" .... While the same radio tries to find the one who could well be, as in a kind of contest the "first whistleblower"!footnote-1727? .... This rewriting of History can be defended because ultimately what did other Voltaire do for Calas, or Zola for Dreyfus?

It is also a subject of legislative discussion since in the United States the Dodd-Frank law of 2010 inserted in the law of 1934 which established the Securities & Exchanges Commission a complete device of remuneration and remuneration of the whistleblowers, whereas after having developed flexible but guiding lines in this regard in 2012!footnote-1698, the European Commission published on November 20, 2018 the text of what will become a Directive intended to give a unified European status to the character, in the system gradually developed to protect the one who was presented in 2018 as that "cannot be punished for having done what is right".

In Europe, the Directive first approved by a Resolution of the European Parliament on April 16, 2019 on the protection of persons denouncing breaches of Union Law and then adopted on October 7, 2019 (Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council of European Union on the Protection of Persons who Report Violations of European Union Law, different title, it should be noted, will have to be transposed into the laws of the Member States within the next two years. , since only "violations of Union Law" are targeted, but the character of the "whistleblower" is more generally targeted: he is "whole"!footnote-1699.

In short, the whistleblower is a star!footnote-1390. A sort of historical figure, covered in blows and glory, going from Voltaire to Snowden, both of whom find themselves embodied on the screens!footnote-1681 ....,

Consecrated by law, which associates with it a legal regime of protection to such an extent that, like a Nessus tunic, it is this legal regime which will define the character and not the reverse. When we read the law of December 9, 2016 relating to transparency in the fight against corruption and the modernization of economic life, known as "Sapin 2", we notice that the Legislator makes much of this character, since 'he dedicates its chapter II to him!footnote-1682: "From the protection of whistleblowers", and that it is by his very protection that he formally opens the door of Right to him.

But why a plural? Admittedly when we read the recitals of the Community Directive of October 7, 2019 on the protection of whistleblowers!footnote-1702, it is only a list of all the subjects on which it is a good idea to protect them, which therefore prompts us to see in this plural only the index of this non-exhaustive list of subjects which it is good to tell us, a sign of the lack of definition of who should alert us. Reading the French law known as "Sapin 2" makes it less severe but more perplexing. Indeed, this plurality referred to by the title of the chapter devoted to "whistleblowers", there is no longer any question in the rest of the law, in the very definition which follows, article 6 which opens this chapter devoted to "whistleblowers" offering the reader immediately a singular since it begins as follows: "A!footnote-1684 whistleblower is a person ...". No mention of diversity. The art of legislative writing would however have required that the qualifying article not only be singular but that it should not yet be undefined. Stendhal if he had still deigned to have the law for bedside book would have wanted to find at the beginning of chapter a sentence like: "The!footnote-1683 whistleblower is a person ...".

Thus seem to contradict themselves within the law "Sapin 2 the very title which presents the character, in that it uses a defined plural (the) while the defining article which presents it is in the undefined singular (one). ...

Here is a first reason not to advance any more but in a very careful way, in this "step by step" that constitutes a reading word for word: a gloss. This consists of taking the expression itself literally. The second reason for this technical choice is that the gloss is well suited to the introduction of a collective work, thus allowing more targeted developments to take place in other contributions, on the techniques, the difficulties and the limits of this protection, or on its history, or the reasons for the arrival in French law of these whistleblowers and the way they develop, or not, elsewhere.

I am therefore going to content myself with taking this already legal expression to the letter: The (I) whistle (III). blowers (II). 

 

 

 

May 15, 2020

Publications

Full reference : Frison-Roche, M.-A., Avocat et Compliance - L'avenir du personnage et de son outil : Droit, Humanisme et Défense ("Attorney and Compliance - the future of the character and his tool: Law, Humanism and Defense),article of synthesis fo the collective publication "Compliance", Dalloz Avocat, March 2020, April 2020, June 2020, Dalloz Avocat, June 2020, p.321-324

Read the synthesis article (in French).

Read the editorial of the March 2020 Issue, presenting the problematic : "The Attorney, Vector of Conviction in the New Compliance System"

 

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Summary of the article: In the future, the place of lawyers in compliance mechanisms, including in Ex Ante, will develop for three reasons, which emerge from all of the contributions. First of all because Compliance is a matter of Law, a lawyer is a lawyer and in the future it is a matter of Law and not on technical terms that Compliance demands its meaning and legitimacy. Then because Conformity must be defined in relation to the person, the lawyer expresses the humanist conception of the rules and Compliance Law will only be tolerable in the future if it is for "monumental goal" of protection of the person. Finally, because Compliance with ordinary repression, that the lawyer in his heart defends and must be and remain at the center of Compliance Law.

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April 24, 2020

Publications

This interview was conducted in French with Olivia Dufour, for an article published in French in the digital publication Actualité Juridique.

Its subject is  the confrontation between the current health crisis situation and the Compliance Law. 

 

Summary. After defining Compliance Law, distinguishing the procedural and poor definition and the substantial and rich definition, the starting point is to admit the aporia: the type of health crisis caused by Covid-19 will be renewed and it is imperative to prevent it, even to manage it, then to organize the crisis exit. Public Authorities are legitimate to do so, but because this type of crisis being global and the State being consubstantially linked to borders, States are hardly powerful. Their traditional International Law shows their  limits in this current crisis and one cannot hope that this configulration will improve radically.

In contrast, some companies and markets, notably the financial markets, are global. But the markets are not legitimate to carry out such missions and counting on the generosity of certain large companies is far too fragile in front of the "monumental goal" that is the prevention of the next health crisis, crisis which must never happen.

How to get out of this aporia?

By Compliance Law, basis of, in a literal and strong sense, the "Law of the Future". 

We need to be inspired by the Banking and Financial Compliance Law. Designed in the United States after the 1929 crisis to tend towards the "monumental goal" of the absence of a new devastating crisis in the country and the world,  this set of new legal mechanisms gave duty and power of supervision, regulation and compliance to market authorities and central bankers. These are independent of governments but in constant contact with them. Today, they claim to have as first priority the fight against climate change. Now and for the future, they must also be given the responsibility and the powers to prevent a global health disaster, similar to a global ecological disaster, similar to a global financial disaster. This does not require a modification of the texts because their mandate consists in fighting instability. Stability must become a primary legal principle, of which the fight against monetary instability was only a first example. By the new use that central banks must make of it by preventing and managing health crises, Compliance Law will ensure that the future will be not catastrophic.