March 31, 2022


Ex-Ante Compliance, in Towards Automated Compliance in the Data Economy


► Référence complète : Frison-Roche, M.A., Ex-Ante Compliance, in Gaia-X, Towards Automated Compliance in the Data Economy, 31 mars 2022.


► Voir le programme (en anglais)


► Présentation générale de l'intervention : (en anglais)

This intervention before the Board of Gaia-X is built on four observations about the evolution of the European legal system, showing how it is in favor of Gaia-X, articulated with an article on Ex Compliance Law and Labelling mechanisms, co-written with Martine Gourié and Hubert Tardieu. 

The principal idea of this speech is to show that  if Competition Law and Compliance Law are two different branches of Law, they are articulated. More now than before, and certainly they will be increasingly articulated.

As I shall show it, the European Institutions develop both as two pillars, notably through the Digital Markets Act (DMA) for Competition Law and the Digital Services Act (DSA) for Compliance Law.

The European Union does not have to choose between Compliance and Competition: the European space is built on   both, for instance Flexibility through the principle of free Competition and Sustainability through the principle of Compliance. 

The speech develops 4 remarks.

1. Compliance Law is not appropriation of legal rules by private sector. The first principles are always made by Legislators (European and National public rule makers, in our case) and everything must always be challenged before courts.

2.  Competition Authorities want to increase the efficiency of Competition Law, bringing Competition Law to Compliance Law. They always do (see European Commission, Compliance matters, 2013). Moreover, this is the object of the Digital Markets Act, putting Competition Law from Ex Post to Ex Ante concernant the digital space. It is a revolution, but the purpose of Competition Law does not change: Compliance Legal tools are implemented by this so important Act, but it is always free and fair competitive markets. The purpose is to obtain to obtain more efficiency without change the substantial goal.

3. But the European Union is moving to a more substantial Compliance Law, by the Digital Services Act, the twin of the DMA. This more political text wants to impose safety in the digital space and protect users' rights in Ex Ante, by Compliance. This is a Monumental Goals, to obtain a European sovereignty.  This political ambition is served by the private sector. It is impossible to apprehend DMA without consider DSA: they are twins. Their articulation will be protected by courts and explained to them.

4. They illustrated a more general European evolution. Two examples:  the Trans-Atlantic Data Privacy Transfer Framework, articulating free flow of data and effective protection of individuals, and the proposal of European directive for a Corporate Sustainability Due Diligence, with Compliance Ex Ante mechanisms, public authorities helping and supervising private sector fighting human rights' violations and climate change in the perspective of sustainable economy.

Because at the end of the day, the future of Europe is in common values, protected by courts.



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